QI deficiency explained in traditional Chinese medicine

According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), qi is the vital energy that circulates through the body at all times. Practitioners believe that a qi deficiency is linked to the spleen and that rest and eating certain foods can treat the imbalance.

The concepts of TCM are not based in modern science but have their roots in ancient Chinese practices. TCM includes herbal remedies, acupuncture, and exercises such as tai chi or qigong.

While there is no scientific proof for qi or a deficiency of qi, many people understand these terms as ways to describe issues in the body as a whole — rather than taking the rigorous route that medical science does.

In this article, we will explore what a qi deficiency is, its symptoms and causes, and how it might be treated with rest and diet.

What is a qi deficiency?

According to TCM, qi is life force or vital energy. Everything in the world is made up of qi, including the physical body and the feelings a person has.

Followers and practitioners of TCM believe that to be balanced in life and free from physical or mental health issues, a person must have balanced qi. They suggest that illnesses or other conditions only appear when there is a qi imbalance or deficiency in the body.

The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) define qi as a vital energy that flows through the body, helping to maintain a person’s health. The NCCIH are interested in the ideas of TCM but do not focus on specific concepts, such as qi. Instead, the NCCIH take a more scientific view, looking at how these practices affect the body and their use in symptom management.

What are the symptoms?

Roughly translated, qi means energy, so, simply put, a qi deficiency means low energy. This low energy can affect the body as whole or just specific organs that cause different symptoms.

A general qi deficiency may cause some overall symptoms of fatigue and illness.

A 2015 study published in the Journal of Traditional Chinese Medical Sciences uses the following five signs and symptoms to diagnose a qi deficiency:

  • fatigue
  • shortness of breath or no desire to talk
  • spontaneous sweating
  • a swollen tongue with teeth marks on the side
  • a weak pulse

Causes of qi deficiency

The study also outlines a range of possible factors that can lead to a qi deficiency.

The authors suggest that there could be a link between qi deficiency and aging.

Some practitioners believe that there is a relationship between qi deficiency and chronic medical diseases and their complications, such as heart disease, hypertension, or stroke.

Qi deficiency may also result from using too much qi in daily life. Many people in the western world are constantly working or on-the-go, leading busy lives, leaving no time to relax.

According to TCM, leading such a stressful life with little downtime may quickly drain the body of vital energy, making a person more susceptible to qi deficiency and the illnesses that follow. Think of qi deficiency as being burned out, a condition that can cause the symptoms and conditions associated with stress.

Treatments for qi deficiency

TCM places great importance on treating the body as a whole rather than merely managing symptoms. Where western medicine might treat tiredness with stimulants, such as coffee, TCM concerns itself with addressing the issues causing the fatigue in the first place.

There is little quality scientific research to support topics such as qi and qi deficiency, and most of the evidence for treating qi deficiency is anecdotal.

That said, many people may find relief from symptoms by making some changes in their diet and lifestyle to support their qi balance or using alternative therapies, such as acupuncture.

Focus on rest

People with qi deficiency may work too hard, are always on the go, and never have downtime. To help balance the qi in the body, many TCM practitioners recommend a heavy focus on rest.

This can include:

  • taking breaks throughout the day.
  • making time to take a nap.
  • doing relaxing activities, such as yoga, tai chi, or qigong.

Improve sleep patterns

People with a qi deficiency may have a tendency towards stress and may benefit from improving their sleep patterns. A study published in Experimental Neurobiology reports that excessive stress is bad for both the body and the brain. Stress may activate the brain at night, making sound sleep difficult.

Reducing stress levels may help a person sleep better and have more energy or qi throughout the day. Try to find a set time to go to sleep and wake up each day, and aim to get at least 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night.

Best foods for a qi deficiency

TCM suggests that a qi deficiency might be influenced by the spleen, which carries qi to other parts of the body. This is why a qi deficiency might occur in any area of the body.

To balance qi, TCM practitioners recommend eating foods that are good for the spleen.

Foods to eat

A healthful diet for a balanced qi includes:

  • fermented foods for digestive health, including sauerkraut, kimchi, and kefir
  • healthful, energizing fats, such as olive oil, salmon, coconut oil, and avocados
  • a wide variety of lightly cooked fruits, vegetables, and nuts
  • adaptogenic herbs, such as ginseng, should be taken under the guidance of a healthcare practitioner or trusted TCM practitioner

Foods that are good for spleen qi include yang tonic foods and qi-circulating foods. According to TCM, these foods might warm the spleen and increase energy flow to the body.

Foods to eat for spleen qi include:

  • lentils
  • quinoa
  • oats
  • malted grain beverages
  • root vegetables including sweet potato and taro
  • pumpkin and other squash
  • miso soup
  • orange peels
  • mustard leaf

Foods to avoid for spleen qi include:

  • refined sugar
  • refined grains
  • fried or salty foods
  • iced or refrigerated foods or drinks
  • dairy products
  • citrus fruits
  • pork
  • yeasty foods, such as beer or dough
  • banana

Spleen qi deficiency

In western medicine, the spleen is considered a non-vital organ. It is a small organ that helps filter blood and is part of the immune system, but people can live without it.

In TCM, the spleen is central to digestion and is considered a vital organ. The spleen is said to pull qi from all the foods we eat and deliver it to the rest of the body. When a TCM practitioner suspects a qi deficiency, they often look to treat the spleen first.

TCM pairs the stomach and spleen as the sources of digestion and the digestive system as a whole. Any imbalances in the spleen qi would create what western medicine calls gastrointestinal issues.

Spleen qi deficiency may cause symptoms such as:

  • loss of appetite
  • nausea or diarrhea
  • gas or bloating
  • varicose veins
  • hemorrhoids
  • acid reflux
  • trouble waking up in the morning
  • brain fog throughout the day
  • diabetes
  • eating disorders

Other types of qi deficiency

TCM works on the basis that qi is everywhere in the body, so a qi deficiency in one body system or organ might cause different symptoms to a qi deficiency in another. For example:

Symptoms of a heart qi deficiency may include:

  • sweating without exerting oneself
  • palpitations when moving
  • anxiety
  • nightmares or restless sleep
  • mood swings

Symptoms of a lung qi deficiency include:

  • a cough, which may be mild but continuous
  • shortness of breath
  • low speaking voice
  • a tendency to catch colds

Symptoms of a kidney qi deficiency include:

  • cold limbs
  • asthma
  • hair loss
  • urinary problems
  • very clear urine

10 home remedies for wheezing

Wheezing is a common symptom of various respiratory disorders that cause tightening in the throat. There are several ways a person can stop their wheezing at home without using an inhaler, but these will depend on the cause.

Wheezing happens when the airways are tightened, blocked, or inflamed, making a person’s breathing sound like whistling or squeaking. Common causes include a cold, asthma, allergies, or more serious conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Steam inhalation is an effective home remedy for wheezing.

The following home treatments for wheezing aim to open up the airways, reduce the irritants or pollution that a person breathes in, or treat the underlying causes of the wheezing.

If a person has asthma or another medical condition that causes wheezing, they should speak to our doctors in clinic and use the medications prescribed for it, such as an asthma inhaler.

Effective home remedies for wheezing include:

1. Steam inhalation

Inhaling warm, moisture-rich air can be very effective for clearing the sinuses and opening up the airways.Peppermint essential oil may have pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects. Research suggests that it may relax the muscles of the respiratory system, which could help to relieve wheezing and other respiratory problems.

If a steam bath does not appeal to you, a sauna room or hot shower can also help loosen congestion. Gently tapping on the back or chest and breathing deeply can help the steam work even better.

2. Hot drinks

Warm and hot drinks can help to loosen up the airways and relieve congestion.

Honey is a natural anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial, so adding a teaspoon of honey to a hot drink may further improve a person’s symptoms.

A 2017 study found that eating one tablespoon of honey twice a day, along with other treatments, helped to relieve throat congestion.

Some people find that peppermint or other menthol teas work well. A person can try experimenting with different teas to find one that helps.

3. Breathing exercises

Breathing exercises may help with COPD, bronchitis, allergies, and other common causes of wheezing.

A 2009 study found that certain yoga-inspired breathing techniques could help with breathing difficulties related to bronchial asthma, including wheezing.

Breathing exercises often include deep, regular inhalations and exhalations. A doctor or respiratory therapist can help with deciding the most effective breathing techniques.

A person may find that they have trouble breathing during a panic attack. Deep breathing exercises can also assist here. It may help to try slow breathing, focusing on breathing deeply into the stomach, and counting breathes.

4. Humidifiers

A humidifier may help to reduce wheezing.

During the dry winter months, wheezing often gets worse. A humidifier in the bedroom can help loosen congestion and reduce the severity of wheezing.

A person can add peppermint or other oils to the water in the humidifier, though they should check the humidifier’s instructions before adding anything other than water.

5. Air filters

Many conditions that cause wheezing can get worse when the air is polluted or in response to allergens. A home air filter can reduce the presence of irritants that may trigger wheezing and breathing trouble.

6. Identifying and removing triggers

Chronic illnesses such as asthma and allergies may get worse in response to certain triggers, such as stress or allergens. Controlling these triggers, as much as possible, can help.

For instance, a person with a chronic respiratory condition who also has allergies might take allergy medication and avoid allergy triggers.

7. Allergy medications

People with allergies can benefit from a wide variety of allergy medications, including decongestants, corticosteroid tablets, and antihistamines.

Nasal sprays may be especially helpful to relieve a tight chest, congestion, and inflammation that can cause wheezing.

More severe allergies may require prescription allergy medication.

8. Allergy immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a process of retraining the immune system not to react to allergens.

The most common form of immunotherapy is allergy shots. A person may need several treatments, but over time, immunotherapy can reduce the frequency of wheezing.

Immunotherapy may also be helpful for people with other chronic conditions, such as COPD, who also have allergies.

9. Bronchodilators

Bronchodilators are medications that help relax the lungs and prevent the airways from narrowing. They can help with wheezing caused by COPD and asthma.

Bronchodilators come in two forms:

  • Short-acting bronchodilators. Sometimes known as rescue inhalers, these can stop an asthma or COPD attack.
  • Long-acting bronchodilators. This variety helps relax the airways over the long-term, reducing the frequency and severity of wheezing episodes.

Bronchodilators should be obtained from a doctor and can then be used at home, as needed.

10. Other medications

A wide variety of medications can treat wheezing that is due to underlying illness. A person who experiences wheezing due to a severe allergic reaction, for instance, may require epinephrine or corticosteroids.

People with heart health issues may take blood pressure medication or blood thinners to prevent further damage to the heart.

It is vital to discuss with a doctor whether medication might help, and how various medications may interact with one another.

Outlook

The long-term outlook for wheezing ultimately depends on its cause. Even when wheezing is due to a chronic illness, it can often be well-managed with medication and home treatments.

Ongoing medical care remains important, however, and people whose symptoms do not improve should consult a doctor. Consider tracking symptoms to identify any underlying triggers for symptoms.

If wheezing is causing concern, it is essential to remain calm, as panicking can worsen wheezing. Keep the breathing slow and regular and seek medical treatment when appropriate.

Even when wheezing is due to a serious medical condition, medications can improve symptoms.

Allergic Reaction and Treatments

 

Treating allergic reactions

Allergies are a common cause of illness and can occur at any stage in someone’s life. Numerous different things cause allergies from pollen to food to medication, meaning it is not always easy to know the best treatments or home remedies.

What is an allergic reaction?

Many people have allergies, which may cause symptoms such as coughing and sneezing.

An allergic reaction occurs when cells in the immune system interpret a foreign substance or allergen as harmful.

The immune system overreacts to these allergens and produces histamine, which is a chemical that causes allergy symptoms, such as inflammation, sneezing, and coughing.

Mild allergic reactions can usually be treated with home remedies and over-the-counter (OTC) medications

Fast facts on treating an allergic reaction:

Most minor allergy symptoms can be treated with antihistamines, corticosteroids, or decongestants.

Saline nasal rinses can be used for congestion-related allergy symptoms.

Corticosteroid creams can treat skin rashes related to allergies.

mmunotherapy is a long-term treatment option for chronic allergy symptoms.

Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency, and people should call 911 if they suspect someone is having an anaphylactic reaction.

Treating allergic reactions

Many mild to moderate allergic reactions can be treated at home or with OTC medications. The following treatments are commonly used to reduce the symptoms of an allergic reaction:

Antihistamines

Antihistamines can help to treat most minor allergic reactions regardless of the cause. These drugs reduce the body’s production of histamine, which reduces all symptoms, including sneezing, watering eyes, and skin reactions.

Second-generation antihistamines, including Claritin (loratadine) and Zyrtec (cetirizine), are less likely to cause drowsiness than first-generation antihistamines, such as Benadryl.

Antihistamines come in several forms, usually to help deliver the medication closer to the source of the reaction or make it easier to consume, such as:

  • oral pills
  • dissolvable tablets
  • nasal sprays
  • liquids
  • eye drops

Antihistamines in these forms are available from pharmacies, to buy online, or on prescription from a doctor.

Antihistamines can also be taken to prevent allergies. Many people with seasonal or pet allergies will begin taking antihistamines when they know they are going to be exposed to an allergen.

A person who is pregnant or has a liver disorder should consult their doctor before taking antihistamines.

Nasal decongestants

Nasal decongestant pills, liquids, and sprays can also help reduce stuffy, swollen sinuses and related symptoms, such as a sore throat or coughing.

However, decongestant medications should not be taken continuously for more than 72 hours.

Nasal decongestants are available over the counter and online.

Anti-inflammatory medication

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) may also be used to help temporarily reduce pain, swelling, and cramping caused by allergies.

Avoid the allergen

The best way to treat and prevent allergic reactions is to know what triggers the reaction and stay away from it, especially food allergens.

When this is not possible or realistic, using antihistamines or decongestants when in contact with allergens can help to treat the symptoms.

Use a saline sinus rinse

A saline sinus rinse may treat symptoms such as a runny or itchy nose.

When allergies cause sinus problems, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) recommend a person rinse their sinuses with saline. This can remove allergens and clear the airways.

The AAAAI recommends the following saline recipe:

  • mix 3 teaspoons of salt (without iodide) with 1 teaspoon of baking soda
  • add 1 teaspoon of this mixture to 8 ounces of boiled water
  • dissolve the mixture in the water then use as a saline rinse

Sinus rinsing devices can be purchased online or from a pharmacy.

Treating environmental allergies

For airborne allergens, such as pollen, dust, and mold spores, additional treatment options include:

  • throat lozenges with soothing ingredients, such as menthol, honey, or ginger
  • shower and wash all clothing after being exposed to an allergen
  • exercise for a few minutes to help reduce nasal congestion

Treating allergies on the skin

For allergic reactions that cause skin symptoms, including those associated with allergens found in animal saliva, poisonous plants, drugs, chemicals and metals, additional treatment options include:

  • Topical corticosteroid creams or tablets. Corticosteroids contain steroids that reduce inflammation and itching. Mild forms of these creams can be found online, and a doctor can prescribe stronger versions.
  • Moisturizing creams. Emollient creams with soothing ingredients, such as calamine can treat skin reactions.
  • Bite or sting medication. Medication targeted to reduce allergic reactions to insect bites or stings have a similar effect to other allergy medications.
  • Ice pack. Applying an ice pack wrapped in cloth to the area for 10- to 15-minute intervals can reduce inflammation.

Treating severe allergies

People should speak to a professional if they have or suspect that they have severe or chronic allergies. You are always more than welcome to call our clinic for more information.

A doctor can prescribe medications that contain much stronger doses of the compounds found in OTC products.

Treatment options for chronic or severe allergies include:

  • Immunotherapy, or allergy shots. Immunotherapy can be between 90 and 98 percent effective at reducing allergic reactions to insect stings, for instance.
  • Prescription asthma medications, such as bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids.
  • Oral cromolyn can be taken for food allergies.
  • Drug desensitization therapy is used for specific allergens.

Natural remedies for allergic reactions

Many traditional medicine systems use herbal supplements and extracts to both treat and prevent allergic reactions, especially seasonal allergies.

Though there is little scientific evidence to support the use of most alternative or natural remedies, some people may find that some can provide relief from their symptoms.

The American Association of Naturopathic Physicians recommend the following natural treatments for allergies:

  • Dietary changes. A low-fat diet high in complex carbohydrates, such as beans, whole grains, and vegetables may reduce allergy reactions.
  • Bioflavonoids. These plant-based chemicals found in citrus fruits and blackcurrants may act as natural antihistamines. These can also be taken as supplements.
  • Supplements. Flaxseed oil, zinc, and vitamins A, C, and E are suggested to improve allergy symptoms.
  • Acupuncture. Acupuncture treatments may help some people to find relief from their symptoms.

Learn more about diastole and systole in your blood pressure

The terms diastole and systole refer to when the heart muscles relax and contract. The balance between diastole and systole determines a person’s blood pressure.

The heart is a pump that supplies all tissues and organs of the body with oxygen-rich blood. The heartbeat is caused by the heart muscles relaxing and contracting.

During this cycle, the period of relaxation is called diastole and the period of contraction is called systole.

What are diastole and systole?

Diastole is when the heart muscle relaxes and systole is when the heart muscle contracts.

Diastole is defined by the following characteristics:

  • Diastole is when the heart muscle relaxes.
  • When the heart relaxes, the chambers of the heart fill with blood, and a person’s blood pressure decreases.

Systole is defined by the following characteristics:

  • Systole is when the heart muscle contracts.
  • When the heart contracts, it pushes the blood out of the heart and into the large blood vessels of the circulatory system. From here, the blood goes to all of the organs and tissues of the body.
  • During systole, a person’s blood pressure increases.

Differences

The heart is a pump composed of four chambers. It is divided in the middle into a right and left side, and each side is divided further into two chambers — the upper and lower chambers.

The two upper chambers of the heart called the atria receive the blood that is entering the heart. The two lower chambers are called the ventricles. They pump the blood out of the heart to the rest of the body.

To pump the blood around the body, the heart contracts and then relaxes over and over again in a cycle called the cardiac cycle. The cycle begins when the two atria contract, which pushes blood into the ventricles. Then, the ventricles contract, which forces the blood out of the heart.

The deoxygenated blood that comes back from the body to the right side of the heart is then pumped through the lungs where it picks up oxygen. The oxygenated blood then travels to the left side of the heart and is pumped to the rest of the body.

Diastole and systole affect a person’s blood pressure differently, as follows:

  • When the heart pushes blood around the body during systole, the pressure placed on the vessels increases. This is called systolic pressure.
  • When the heart relaxes between beats and refills with blood, the blood pressure drops. This is called diastolic pressure.

What is a healthy blood pressure?

Normal blood pressure will be under 120/80 mmHg.

When a person receives their blood pressure results, they will see two numbers that represent the diastole and systole measurements. These measurements are given as millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).

The first number is the systolic pressure and the second is the diastolic pressure.

According to the American College of Cardiology’s (ACC) updated 2017 guidelines, the current blood pressure categories are:

  • Normal blood pressure: under 120/80 mmHg
  • Elevated blood pressure: a systolic pressure of between 120-129 and a diastolic pressure of under 80
  • Stage 1 hypertension: a systolic pressure of between 130-139 or a diastolic pressure of between 80 and 89 mmHg
  • Stage 2 hypertension: a systolic pressure of at least 140 or a diastolic pressure of at least 90 mmHg

These updated guidelines are likely to place 46 percent of Americans in the category of having high blood pressure.

Blood pressure is always measured when the person is at rest and over several days. Its measurements are also called blood pressure readings.

High blood pressure

Gender and age may increase a person’s risk of high blood pressure.

High blood pressure or hypertension is when a person has abnormally high pressure against the walls of their blood vessels. This condition develops gradually over many years and may go unnoticed for a long time, as there are often no symptoms.

The following risk factors increase a person’s risk of high blood pressure:

  • Age. Blood pressure is usually higher with age.
  • Gender. Men are more likely to have high blood pressure before the age of 55, but women are more likely than men to have the condition after the age of 55.
  • Race. High blood pressure is more common in African Americans than Caucasian or Hispanic Americans.
  • Family history. Having a family member with high blood pressure increases the risk of a person developing high blood pressure in the future.
  • Obesity. A person who is overweight or obese is more likely to develop high blood pressure. This is because a higher volume of blood circulates through blood vessels to supply the cells with oxygen and nutrients. Because there is more blood circulating, there is a higher pressure on the vessel walls.
  • Lifestyle habits. A lack of physical activity, smoking tobacco (including second-hand smoking), drinking too much alcohol, consuming too much salt (sodium) or too little potassium, and stress may increase the risk.
  • Certain chronic conditions. Kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea can increase the risk of high blood pressure.
  • Pregnancy. In some cases, pregnancy can cause high blood pressure.

When left untreated, high blood pressure can cause complications and, eventually, serious health problems, such as:

  • Heart attack. A block in the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a portion of the heart, preventing that portion of the heart from getting oxygen.
  • Stroke. A stroke happens when there is a block in the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the brain, preventing that portion of the brain from getting oxygen.
  • Heart failure. Failure of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the body’s demands, caused by the increased pressure on the vessels.
  • Peripheral artery disease. This is the narrowing of blood vessels other than those that supply the heart or the brain, most commonly of the legs. Blood flow to that part of the body is affected.
  • Aneurysm. An aneurysm is the development of an abnormal bulge in a blood vessel wall, which may press on other organs, block blood flow, or eventually burst.
  • Chronic kidney disease. Kidney disease can be caused by narrowing of blood vessels in the kidneys, which prevents them from working properly.

Low blood pressure

Low blood pressure or hypotension occurs when a person has abnormally low blood pressure against the walls of their blood vessels.

Risk factors that increase a person’s chance of developing the condition include:

  • Age. People older than 65 are more likely to experience a drop in blood pressure while standing up, or after eating. Children and young people are more likely to experience a rapid drop in blood pressure accompanied by dizziness, blurred vision, and fainting, which is known as neurally mediated hypotension.
  • Certain medications. High blood pressure medicines, including diuretics, can cause hypotension.
  • Certain diseases. Conditions such as Parkinson’s, diabetes, and some heart conditions increase the risk of low blood pressure.
  • Other factors. Pregnancy, standing in the heat, or standing still for long periods of time can also cause low blood pressure.

A person with mild low blood pressure may experience fatigue, fainting, or dizziness.

More severe forms of low blood pressure can compromise oxygen-rich blood flow to the body’s major organs, including the brain. If this happens, a person may feel sleepy, confused, or light-headed. In serious cases, this can evolve to heart or brain damage.

Best seven safest and effective natural antibiotics

Certain natural substances have antibacterial properties, but which are safe to use, and when should a person use them?
Prescription antibiotics, such as penicillin, have helped people to recover from otherwise fatal diseases and conditions since the 1940s.
However, people are also turning to natural antibiotics for treatment.
According to the NHS, 1 in 10 people experiences side effects that harm the digestive system after taking antibiotics. Around 1 in 15 people are allergic to this type of medication.
In this article, we look at the evidence behind seven of the best natural antibiotics. We also discuss which to avoid, and when to see a doctor.

Seven best natural antibiotics

Garlic may be an effective treatment against bacteria.
The scientific jury is still out concerning natural antibiotics. While people have used remedies like these for hundreds of years, most treatments have not been thoroughly tested.
However, some show promising results under medical review, and further studies are underway.
With an ongoing increase in drug-resistant bacteria, scientists are looking to nature when developing new medications.
Here, we examine the science behind seven natural antibiotics.

1. Garlic
Cultures across the world have long recognized garlic for its preventive and curative powers.
Research has found that garlic can be an effective treatment against many forms of bacteria, including Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Garlic has even been considered for use against multi-drug resistant tuberculosis.

2. Honey
Since the time of Aristotle, honey has been used as an ointment that helps wounds to heal and prevents or draws out infection.
Healthcare professionals today have found it helpful in treating chronic wounds, burns, ulcers, bedsores, and skin grafts. For example, results of a study from 2016 demonstrate that honey dressings can help to heal wounds.
The antibacterial effects of honey are usually attributed to its hydrogen peroxide content. However, manuka honey fights off bacteria, though it has a lower hydrogen peroxide content.
A 2011 study reported that the best-known type of honey inhibits approximately 60 kinds of bacteria. It also suggests that honey successfully treats wounds infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Antibacterial properties aside, honey may help wounds to heal by providing a protective coating that fosters a moist environment.

3. Ginger
The scientific community also recognizes ginger as a natural antibiotic. Several studies, including one published in 2017, have demonstrated ginger’s ability to fight many strains of bacteria.
Researchers are also exploring ginger’s power to combat seasickness and nausea and to lower blood sugar levels.

4. Echinacea
Echinacea has been used to treat infections for many years.
Native American and other traditional healers have used echinacea for hundreds of years to treat infections and wounds. Researchers are beginning to understand why.
A study published in the Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology reports that extract of Echinacea purpurea can kill many different kinds of bacteria, including Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes).
S. pyogenes is responsible for strep throat, toxic shock syndrome, and the “flesh-eating disease” known as necrotizing fasciitis.
Echinacea may also fight inflammation associated with bacterial infection.

5. Goldenseal
Goldenseal is usually consumed in tea or capsules to treat respiratory and digestive problems. However, it may also combat bacterial diarrhea and urinary tract infections.
In addition, results of a recent study support the use of goldenseal to treat skin infections. In a lab, goldenseal extracts were used to prevent MRSA from damaging tissue.
A person taking prescription medications should check with a doctor before taking goldenseal, as this supplement can cause interference.
Goldenseal also contains berberine, an important component of natural antibiotics. This alkaloid is not safe for infants, or women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.

6. Clove
Clove has traditionally been used in dental procedures. Research is now finding that clove water extract may be effective against many different kinds of bacteria, including E. coli.

7. Oregano
Some believe that oregano boosts the immune system and acts as an antioxidant. It may have anti-inflammatory properties.
While researchers have yet to verify these claims, some studies show that oregano is among the more effective natural antibiotics, particularly when it is made it into an oil.

Risks of natural antibiotics
Just because something is labeled natural, it is not necessarily safe.
The amounts and concentrations of active ingredients vary among brands of supplements. Read labels carefully. A person should also inform their healthcare provider if they plan to take these supplements.
While cooked garlic is usually safe to consume, research suggests that taking concentrated garlic may increase the risk of bleeding. This can be dangerous for people facing surgery or taking blood thinners.
Garlic concentrates may also reduce the usefulness of HIV medications.
Certain products should be avoided, including colloidal silver. This substance consists of microscopic pieces of silver suspended in water.
Colloidal silver has been recommended as a treatment for a variety of diseases, including the bubonic plague and HIV. However, according to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, it can be dangerous, and no credible studies back up these uses.
Taking colloidal silver supplements may interfere with the effectiveness of antibiotics and medication used to treat an underactive thyroid gland.
Silver can also build up in the body and turn the skin bluish-gray. This condition is called argyria and is permanent in most people.

Do you bleed when you blow your nose?

Do you bleed when you blow your nose?

Epistaxis, or a nosebleed, is generally caused by a broken blood vessel in the nose or sinuses. Bleeding from the nose, especially when blowing it, is very common and usually not a cause for concern.
An estimated 60 percent of people experience nosebleeds but only around 6 percent of cases require medical attention.
It can be hard to determine what causes broken blood vessels in the nose. However, there are several factors that may contribute to or cause the nose to bleed when blowing it.

Causes
Blood appearing when blowing the nose may be caused by dry nasal cavities, an injury, nose picking, or blowing too hard.
Common causes of blood appearing when blowing the nose include:
* blowing the nose too hard or too frequently
* inflammation or mucosal irritation caused by infection or allergies
* very dry nasal cavities or sinuses
* prolonged inhalation of very dry or cold air
* nose picking
* antibiotic medications
* blood thinning medications, such as warfarin, aspirin, and clopidogrel
* injury to the nose or face
* environmental factors, such as humidity or being at a high altitude
* abnormalities in the septum, which is the wall that separates the nostrils
Less common causes of nosebleeds include:
* nasal, sinus, face, or eye surgery
* foreign bodies in the nose
* nasal polyps or tumors
* inflammatory conditions
* high blood pressure
* holes in the septum
* blood disorders, such as low blood platelet levels and anemia
* conditions affecting the blood vessels, such as arteriosclerosis
* leukemia, a type of blood cancer conditions affecting the immune system
* liver or kidney problems
* scurvy, or severe vitamin C deficiency
* chemotherapy
* congestive heart failure
* chronic use or overuse of certain herbal supplements, most commonly vitamin E and gingko biloba
* exposure to toxic chemicals
* use of illicit drugs, especially cocaine
Some hereditary or genetic conditions that cause abnormal bleeding can also lead to blood appearing when the nose is blown. These conditions include:

* von Willebrand disease
* hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
* factor VIII deficiency (hemophilia A)
* factor IX deficiency (hemophilia B)
* factor XI deficiency

Treatment options
Gently and firmly pinching the nose may be a recommended treatment option for bleeding noses.
In most cases, a nosebleed or minor bleeding from the nose eventually stops on its own after a few minutes.
There are a few at-home remedies, however, that may encourage nosebleeds to stop earlier or reduce the amount of bleeding.
Basic treatment options for bleeding noses include:
* laying down flat with the head tilted backward to reduce blood flow to the nose
* relaxing and breathing through the mouth
* not touching or picking the nose once it has stopped bleeding
* laying down or resting in a seated position for a few hours after the bleeding has stopped
* gently but firmly pinching the nose, especially if the site of the bleeding is known
Around 90 percent of nosebleeds occur in the front bottom portion of the septum, the fleshy wall that divides the nostrils.
Prolonged or repetitive nosebleeds, or those caused by an underlying medical condition, require medical attention and treatment.
If nosebleeds are severe, a person may require more aggressive treatment to prevent extensive blood loss.
Medical treatment options include:
* nasal packing, where sterile cotton pads or dressings are packed into the nostril to limit bleeding
* topical medications to limit bleeding, known as local hemostatic agents
* topical antiseptic and antibiotic ointments and creams
* sealing a blood vessel shut using an electrical device or chemical such as silver nitrate
* surgery where the blood vessel is packed with sterile materials to block it off
* surgery where the blood vessel is tied together to seal it shut
* clotting medications
* blood transfusions

Prevention tips
In many cases, there is no specific way to avoid nosebleeds, but there are some things that may help prevent or reduce the risk of them.
Blowing the nose gently and not picking at the skin can usually prevent minor bleeding.
Other tips for preventing bleeding when blowing the nose include:
* using over-the-counter nasal decongestant sprays or pills to treat allergies
* applying over-the-counter nasal lubricants or petroleum jelly in the nostrils to prevent dryness
* using saline sprays to prevent dryness
* avoiding picking the nose, especially scabs
* avoiding blowing the nose aggressively or too frequently
* protecting the nose from cold or dry air by using a scarf
* not overusing or misusing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) and antibiotics
* reducing inflammation and nasal congestion by using a nasal or sinus rinse
* avoiding exposure to toxic chemicals
* not using illicit drugs, especially cocaine
One example of a nasal rinse is a Neti pot. These are commonly available online and can be used at home.

When to see a doctor
If nosebleeds are chronic or repetitive, a healthcare professional should be consulted.
People should seek medical attention anytime a nosebleed does not stop naturally within 20 minutes. They should also seek medical attention if it does not respond to initial treatments, such as applying pressure.
Although nosebleeds tend to be harmless, severe or prolonged nosebleeds can cause serious blood loss, especially in:
* young children
* people over the age of 65
* people with immune conditions
It is also important to talk with a doctor about chronic or repetitive nosebleeds.
Chronic nosebleeds can be a sign of underlying medical conditions, such as blood or inflammatory disorders. Repetitive nosebleeds can also be a sign of nasal deformities or tumors, especially when they only involve one nostril.
People should also seek medical attention if nosebleeds are accompanied by any of the following symptoms:
* pain or tenderness around the eyes
* stuffy nose that continues to get worse and will not clear
* mucus that drips in the back of the throat
* change in the appearance of the nose or surrounding area
* pus in the nose
* chronic watery eyes
* reduced sense of smell
* change in vision
* enlarged lymph nodes in the neck
* pain or pressure in the ears
* hearing loss
* numbness in the face
* loosening, numbness, or pain in the teeth
* difficulty opening the mouth
* headache

Outlook
Bleeding from the nose when blowing it is a common experience. It is usually due to inflamed or damaged nasal tissues and blood vessels, and is not a cause for concern.
Nosebleeds are generally harmless, and stop on their own or after applying gentle pressure to the area.
Severe or repetitive nosebleeds can be a sign of an underlying medical condition that may require treatment, such blood disorders or obstructions.
People should speak with a doctor about severe or repetitive nosebleeds, especially when accompanied by additional symptoms.

Preventing of Type 1 diabetes.

Does the gut hold the key to prevention?

Targeting specific microbiota in the gut could be one way to protect against type 1 diabetes, a new study concludes.

Researchers from the University of Queensland in Australia have found distinct gut microbiota alterations in rodents and humans that are at high risk of type 1 diabetes.
Furthermore, the scientists found that these gut microbiota alterations were a result of genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes, as well as changes in immune system functioning.
Researchers findings suggest that targeting the gut microbiota might have the potential to prevent type 1 diabetes.

In type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakingly attacks and destroys the beta cells, or those that produce insulin, of the pancreas. As a result, not enough insulin is made, and this can lead to an increase in blood sugar levels.
Type 1 diabetes accounts for around 5 percent of all diabetes cases, and onset of the condition is most common in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood.

Type 1 diabetes and the gut
Although the precise cause of type 1 diabetes remains unclear, it is known that those who possess certain genetic variants are at greater risk of the condition.
For example, susceptibility to type 1 diabetes is higher among individuals who have variants of the human leukocyte antigen complex, such as the HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DRB1 genes. These are genes that play a role in immune system functioning.

Research also suggested that changes in gut microbiota — or the population of microorganisms that reside in the intestine — play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes.
However it is unclear whether such changes in gut microbiota are driven by genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes or other factors. The team sought to find out with the new study.
First, they conducted an analysis of non-obese mouse models that were genetically susceptible to type 1 diabetes. They looked at whether the rodents’ gut microbiota differed to that of mice that were protected against type 1 diabetes, and, if so, whether genetic susceptibility played a role.
The results of the analysis revealed that the mouse models with genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes demonstrated alterations in gut microbiota composition. Specifically, they showed reductions in Ruminococcus, Lachnospiraceae, and Clostridiales bacteria.
What is more, the scientists found that these alterations were associated with changes in immune system functioning.
The study also found that using immunotherapy to target T cells — which are a type of white blood cell — related to type 1 diabetes led to significant changes in the gut microbiota of rodents.

A route for prevention?

The researchers were able to confirm their findings in a study of humans with genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes.
Researchers now plan to assess clinical trials of immunotherapies for type 1 diabetes, with the aim of finding out whether the treatment led to changes in gut microbiota.
If so, the researchers say that it could then be possible to protect against type 1 diabetes by restoring protective gut microorganisms.
“This research has show there is a genetic component to microbiota and the immune response involved in regulating it. This means that changes in the microbiota in type 1 diabetes occur before symptoms develop, and are not just a side effect of the disease.
Therapies targeting the microbiota could therefore have the potential to help prevent type 1 diabetes in the future.

Woman Performing Blood Test on Herself

How reducing alcohol intake can benefit health

As 2017 arrived, many of us are thinking about the healthy lifestyle changes we want to make for the coming year. Do you plan to exercise more? Lose weight? Quit smoking? How about cutting down on alcohol intake? While that last question may have prompted a highly resistant shake of the head from many readers who enjoy their after-work beer or a glass of wine with dinner, there is no better time to review your alcohol intake.
Are you planning to reduce your alcohol intake for 2017? If so, it could yield numerous health benefits.
During the month of January, millions of people will be giving up alcohol as part of a campaign dubbed “Dry January.”
Popularized by British organization Alcohol Concern, Dry January aims to “change the conversation” about alcohol by encouraging people to stop drinking for 1 month.
You might think that quitting the drink for just 31 days is unlikely to have a big impact on health, but many participants who take part in Dry January report better sleep, increased energy, and weight loss.
Most importantly, abstaining from alcohol for 1 month may encourage a reduction in alcohol intake in the longer term. A study published in the journal Health Psychology in March found that people who took part in Dry January showed a decrease in alcohol consumption over the subsequent 6 months.
In this article, we take a closer look at how alcohol affects the body, as well as the health benefits of reducing alcohol intake.
The scale of drinking in the U.S.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020 recommend that adults who drink alcohol should only do so in moderation – that is, up to one alcoholic beverage a day for women and two for men.
However, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) report that in 2014, almost a quarter of adults in the United States engaged in binge drinking – consumption of around four drinks for women and five for men in a 2-hour period – over the past month.
Additionally, a further 6.7 percent reported engaging in heavy drinking over the past month, which is defined as consuming at least five drinks on one occasion for 5 or more days over the past 30 days.
Over the holidays and other special occasions, it can be hard to say no to that glass of bubbly when everyone else is celebrating with a drink in hand. Some of us may even see alcohol as a reward for a hard week at work or as a stress-relieving aid.
That bottle of beer or glass of wine might feel good in the moment, but if consumed in high amounts or too often, it could wreak havoc on your physical and mental well-being.
The effects of alcohol intake

The brain
Those of you who drink are likely to have experienced the dreaded hangover at least once. Feelings of sickness, dizziness, dehydration, and headache are all caused by drinking too much the night before.
Alcohol can cause an imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain.
However, symptoms of excess alcohol intake can begin long before a hangover. In fact, alcohol can cause problems soon after the first sip.
The NIAAA explain that alcohol disrupts communication between nerve cells in the brain by causing an imbalance in the levels of neurotransmitters – the chemicals that relay signals from one nerve cell to another.
An imbalance of neurotransmitters can cause changes to mood, behavior, and coordination that are characteristic of excess alcohol intake.
Researchers have found that the brain can adapt to changes in neurotransmitter levels caused by alcohol, but this is not necessarily good news. An adjustment such as this enables us to build tolerance to alcohol, and it may fuel the development of alcohol use disorders.
In 2014, around 16.3 million adults in the U.S. had an alcohol use disorder, and in 2010, alcohol abuse cost the country around $249 billion.
The heart
According to the American Heart Association, excess alcohol consumption can increase levels of fats in the blood, which are called triglycerides. High triglyceride levels are known to contribute to the buildup of plaque in the arteries, known as atherosclerosis, which can raise the risk of heart attack and stroke.
Drinking too much – particularly over a long period of time – can also lead to high blood pressure, arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat), cardiomyopathy (enlargement of the heart muscle), and stroke.
It should be mentioned, however, that an increasing number of studies have suggested that moderate drinking may actually benefit heart health. A study reported by Medical News, linked moderate alcohol intake to reduced risk of heart attack and heart failure.
Still, some researchers have questioned the heart health benefits of moderate drinking, and health organizations recommend not initiating alcohol consumption solely to reap such – as yet unproven – rewards.
The liver
When we drink alcohol, the liver breaks it down so that it can be eliminated from the body. Drinking too much over time, however, can cause the liver to become seriously damaged.
In 2011, almost half of liver cirrhosis deaths in the U.S. were related to alcohol.
Heavy alcohol intake can lead to alcoholic fatty liver disease – characterized by a buildup of fat in the arteries – alcoholic hepatitis (inflammation of the liver), and alcoholic cirrhosis (severe liver scarring and structural damage).
The latter is the most advanced form of liver injury caused by heavy alcohol use; according to the NIAAA, of all cirrhosis deaths in the U.S. in 2011, around 48 percent were related to alcohol intake.
The pancreas
The pancreas is crucial for digestion and energy production; it sends enzymes to the small intestine to break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
However, drinking alcohol excessively over a long period of time can disrupt pancreatic function; instead of enzymes being sent to the small intestine to aid digestion, they are secreted into the pancreas itself.
This can lead to pancreatitis, which is characterized by inflammation and swelling of the blood vessels in the pancreas. Around 5 percent of people with alcohol dependence develop the condition.
Alcohol and cancer
An increasing number of studies have associated even light to moderate alcohol intake with increased risk of certain cancers.
A recent study reported by MNT found that each glass of white wine consumed daily may raise the risk of melanoma by 13 percent, while an earlier study linked low alcohol intake to a greater risk of breast cancer.
Other cancers that have been associated with alcohol use include mouth, esophageal, throat, and liver cancers.
The health benefits of reducing alcohol intake
Of course, many of the health risks associated with alcohol intake are related to excessive, long-term drinking. However, even those who drink lightly and in moderation could benefit from reducing their alcohol intake.
Weight loss
Alcoholic beverages are full of calories; a standard glass of white wine contains around 121 calories, while a pint of beer contains at least 150 calories. Needless to say, just a few drinks per week can contribute to weight gain.
Reducing alcohol intake may help you to lose weight.
However, this can be turned around by reducing alcohol consumption; a survey from Alcohol Concern found that around 49 percent of people who take part in Dry January reported weight loss, as well as increased energy.
The NIAAA’s alcohol calorie calculator can help you work out how many calories you consume from alcoholic beverages each week.
Better mood
A drink or two on a Saturday night may put you in good spirits in the short term, but the effect is unlikely to last.
Alcohol intake – especially in large quantities – can interfere with the neurotransmitters that regulate mood, increasing the risk of anxiety, stress, and depression.
As such, cutting back on the liquor means that you are more likely to be in a happier state of mind.
A better night’s sleep
Studies have shown that alcohol can disrupt sleep. Research reported by MNT in 2014, for example, found that drinking can interfere with the body’s ability to regulate sleepiness and wakefulness, which can lead to insomnia.
Dr. Shawn Adhami recommends steering clear of drinking just before bedtime, as this can disrupt normal sleep patterns.
Deep sleep is when the body restores itself, and alcohol can interfere with this,” he explains. As the alcohol starts to wear off, your body can come out of deep sleep and back into REM [rapid eye movement] sleep, which is much easier to wake from. That’s why you often wake up after just a few hours sleep when you’ve been drinking.
It is no surprise, then, that cutting down on drinking can mean a better night’s sleep; a survey from Alcohol Concern found that 62 percent of participants who took part in Dry January reported sleep improvements.
A healthier stomach
Even a little alcohol can irritate the stomach, increasing its production of acid.
This can lead to inflammation of the stomach lining, known as gastritis, causing symptoms such as stomach pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Heavy drinking may even cause stomach bleeding.
By reducing alcohol intake, such problems can be reduced or avoided.
Ready to cut down on drinking?
If cutting back on your alcohol intake has now made it on to your list of New Year’s resolutions, these tips from the NIAAA can help you get started:
* Monitor how much you are drinking: the NIAAA recommend carrying a drinking tracker card, allowing you to track every alcoholic beverage consumed
* Set a goal: do you want to give up alcohol completely, or just limit alcohol intake to once or twice a week? Set yourself a goal of how much you want to drink and when. The NIAAA recommend having some alcohol-free days
* Avoid drinking “triggers”: if you are more likely to drink around certain people or environments, try to avoid such scenarios
* Learn to say “no”: it can be hard to turn down a drink when offered one, especially on special occasions, but the NIAAA recommend having a polite “no, thank you” at the ready. The organization’s module on building drink refusal skills may help
* Pace yourself: aim to consume no more than one standard alcoholic beverage per hour when drinking, sip it slowly, and make every other drink a nonalcoholic one such as water or juice
* Avoid drinking on an empty stomach: eating food alongside an alcoholic beverage means that the alcohol will be absorbed into the bloodstream more slowly.

Dr Afshin Shawn Adhami

Stroke vs. Aneurysm: Treatment Options

A brain aneurysm is a bulge in an artery in the brain that has the potential to burst or rupture. A ruptured aneurysm can cause a type of stroke called a subarachnoid hemorrhage.
An estimated 5 percent of Americans may have or develop a brain aneurysm each year, according to the Mayfield Clinic.
Not all aneurysms cause stroke, and vice-versa. However, if a person is at risk for a burst aneurysm, treatment is often required to prevent this potentially life-threatening occurrence.
Doctors don’t detect an estimated 85 percent of aneurysms until they burst. Fortunately, if a person can seek them quickly enough, there are treatments available for both stroke and aneurysm.
There are different forms of stroke and aneurysm. The treatment that a doctor gives will depend on what type occurs.

Types of stroke
A stroke may occur due to either the blood supply to the brain being blocked or a blood vessel in the brain rupturing.
Two stroke types exist: hemorrhagic and ischemic.
Hemorrhagic strokes account for an estimated 13 percent of all stroke types, according to the American Heart Association. This stroke type occurs when a vessel in the brain bursts.
As a result, blood spills into the brain. The added blood can compress the brain, which can keep life-saving oxygen and blood from getting to the brain tissue.
Hemorrhagic strokes are usually the result of one of two causes: an aneurysm or a collection of abnormal blood vessels in the brain that can rupture.
Ischemic strokes are those that result from a blockage in an artery in the brain. When a blood clot breaks free from its place in an artery, it can lodge in a portion of the brain. This keeps blood from flowing freely to the brain.
Without the oxygen and nutrients that the blood brings to the brain tissue, the tissue dies. The result can be impaired body functioning or death.

Types of brain aneurysm
An aneurysm is a weakened area of an artery in the brain. This area of weakness can result in bulging as blood flows through it. If enough pressure is generated against this weak area, it can burst and blood will flow out.
Doctors may classify an aneurysm by the symptoms it causes. These include:

Aneurysm that hasn’t burst
An aneurysm that hasn’t burst can range in size from large to small. Some people may have a small brain aneurysm and go their entire lives without knowing it.
If an aneurysm gets bigger, it can start to press on areas around the brain. This can cause symptoms such as:
* Pain behind the eye
* Dilated pupil
* Drooping eyelid
* Numbness or weakness on one side of the face
* Pain behind the eye
* Visual changes, such as seeing double
Some people have a family history of brain aneurysms, and they may undergo imaging studies to help a doctor identify if the person may have one that hasn’t burst. Most will largely go undiagnosed until a person starts experiencing symptoms or the aneurysm bursts.
Doctors may classify aneurysms that haven’t burst by their location or size in the brain. These include:
* Fusiform: An aneurysm that has no distinct “neck” and bulges in every direction
* Giant: An aneurysm that is larger than 2.5 centimeters in diameter
* Saccular: Also known as a “berry” aneurysm, this aneurysm type has a distinct neck and typically bulges to one side of an artery

‘Leaking’ aneurysm
A leaking aneurysm is one that may have enough of a weak area to allow a small amount of blood through. This leak can lead to a sudden, severe headache that indicates the extra pressure on the brain.
A leaking aneurysm is dangerous because it is often a precursor to a burst aneurysm.

Burst aneurysm
A burst aneurysm may require immediate brain surgery.
A burst aneurysm occurs when the weakened area of an aneurysm ruptures, leaking a significant amount of blood.
The symptoms associated with a burst aneurysm are severe, and the side effects can be deadly. They include:
* Confusion
* Nausea and vomiting
* Neck stiffness
* Passing out
* Sudden, severe headache
* Visual changes, such as blurred or double vision
A burst aneurysm is a type of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This is because the bleeding occurs between the brain and the membrane that covers the brain. A subarachnoid hemorrhage is a cause of a hemorrhagic stroke.
According to Johns Hopkins Medicine, an estimated 3 percent of all strokes are subarachnoid hemorrhage strokes.
Treatment for brain aneurysm
If a person has a burst aneurysm and seeks emergency medical attention, medications are often given to prevent symptoms and damage from getting worse.
Examples of immediate medical treatments include:
* Anti-seizure medications to prevent seizures that can occur
* Pain medications to relieve the very intense headache a ruptured aneurysm can cause
* Vasodilators, which are medicines that cause blood vessels to expand
Vasodilators keep the affected vessel from tightening too much and stopping important blood flow. These medications also keep a person’s blood pressure from getting too high, which could lead to increased pressure in the skull and bleeding.
Doctors will take into account many factors when determining a potential surgical approach to aneurysm treatment.
Doctors don’t always treat an aneurysm that hasn’t burst, but usually will when it is causing symptoms. Burst aneurysms require fast treatment. Examples of considerations are the patient’s symptoms, health history, and the aneurysm’s size and location.
Several treatment approaches exist for brain aneurysms.

Surgical clipping
This involves accessing the area in the brain where the aneurysm occurred, placing a metal clip at the “neck” of the aneurysm. This keeps blood from flowing into and out of the aneurysm.
The surgical clipping approach involves removing a piece of the skull to access this portion of the brain.

Endovascular coiling
Endovascular coiling is a less invasive approach to aneurysm treatment. It involves accessing a large artery in the body, usually the femoral artery in the groin. A small tube is threaded through this artery up to the area where the aneurysm is.
A doctor will then introduce a special kind of metal coil or glue that fills the aneurysm and blocks blood flow. Clipping and coiling are both known as endovascular treatments.

Flow diversion with stents
This approach involves inserting a special device to re-route blood flow past the aneurysm. The flow diversion procedure can only be performed on an aneurysm that hasn’t burst.
The ability to do this reduces one of the greatest risks associated with surgery, which is accessing the aneurysm itself. With time, the aneurysm should close because it doesn’t receive blood flow that causes it to bulge.

Artery occlusion or bypass

Medical attention should be sought if any symptoms of a brain aneurysm are suspected.
An approach to use if an aneurysm can’t be coiled or clipped. This involves a surgeon removing a portion of the skull to access the area of the aneurysm. An artery from the patient or a donor artery is sewn to the damaged artery, re-routing blood.
If a person experiences a burst aneurysm and subarachnoid hemorrhage, they are at increased risk for an occurrence known as a vasospasm.
A vasospasm is when an artery in the brain tightens or narrows. This limits blood flow and causes symptoms like confusion, restlessness, and muscle weakness.

Treatment for stroke
Treatments for stroke depend upon the stroke type. Doctors can treat an ischemic stroke with a medication called tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). If given within several hours of the first symptoms, this medicine can help to break up a clot and improve blood flow.
If a person cannot receive tPA, another option is retrieving a clot through a procedure known as a mechanical thrombectomy. This involves using a special device to remove the clot and insert a stent to keep the artery open.
A doctor will usually access the clot in a similar method to endovascular coiling, which is through an artery in the groin.
Hemorrhagic stroke treatments due to a subarachnoid hemorrhage are the same as those listed above for an aneurysm. Treatments for a hemorrhagic stroke caused by a collection of abnormal blood vessels may also involve clipping or bypass surgery to prevent bleeding.
According to University Hospital in Newark, NJ, the fatality rates for hemorrhagic stroke are higher than ischemic stroke. The effects of the massive bleeding associated with a hemorrhagic stroke are often difficult to combat, even with today’s technological advancements.
As a result, it’s important that people who have any symptoms of an aneurysm seek immediate medical treatment.

senior man with headache

senior man with headache

Eating fiber keeps gut microbes from eating you

The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining our body’s overall health. New research shows what happens if we do not feed our gut microbes with the fiber they need to survive.

Gut bacteria are essential to keeping our body healthy.

Our gut microbiota contains at least 1,000 different species of known bacteria, summing up 3 million genes.
We share one third of our gut bacteria with other people, while the composition in our other two thirds is unique to each one of us.
Gut microbiota is important to our health because it contributes to a healthy immune system by acting as a barrier against other harmful microorganisms
It also helps with digesting foods that the stomach and small intestine have not been able to digest, as well as producing some vitamins.

We have always been told by healthcare professionals and nutritionists that fiber is important to a healthy diet.
But new research examines exactly what happens if our intestinal microbes do not receive the appropriate amount of fiber.

Studying the behavior of gut bacteria in mice

Researchers bred mice especially for the study. Mice were born and raised without any gut bacteria of their own. They then received a transplant of 14 bacteria that normally live in the human gut.
Knowing the genetic signature of each bacterium, scientists were able to track the evolution of each one of them over time. They used a germ-free lab facility and genetic techniques that allowed them to see what bacteria were present and active under different dietary conditions.
Researchers infected the mice with a strain of bacteria that is the equivalent of E. coli in humans. Then they examined the impact of diets with varying amounts of fiber, as well as a diet with no fiber at all.
Researchers tried a diet that was 15 percent fiber, made from minimally-processed grains and plants. They also tried a diet that was rich in prebiotic fiber – a purified form of soluble fiber that is similar to what some processed foods and dietary supplements contain.

Gut microbes really need their fiber

As revealed by the study – published in the journal Cell – the induced infection did not fully spread in mice that received the 15 percent-fiber diet. Their mucus layer remained thick, protecting them against the infection.
But when scientists replaced the diet with one that lacked fiber altogether, gut microbes started eating the mucus. Even a few days of fiber deprivation led the bacteria to start invading the colon wall.
Gut microbes rely on fiber for their food, and when they do not get it, they start eating away at your gut. This makes the gut more prone to infections.
The diet rich in supplement-like prebiotic fiber had the same results as the diet lacking fiber completely. The mucus layer started eroding as a result of the action of microbes.

Researchers were also able to see what fiber-digesting enzymes the bacteria were making. They found 1,600 different enzymes that digest carbohydrates – a complexity similar to the one found in the human gut.
A lack of fiber also triggered a higher production of such mucus-degrading enzymes.
Scientists were able to look at images of the “goblet” cells on the colon wall that produce mucus. They could clearly see how the mucus layer got progressively thinner as the mice received less fiber.
In a normal gut, mucus is being produced and degraded at a steady pace. But on a fiber-deprived diet, mucus was degraded at a much higher pace than it was produced.
Examining the gut tissue of infected mice, researchers were able to see inflammation across a wide area of thinning, and even patchy tissue.
Infected mice that received a diet rich in fiber also displayed inflammation but across a much smaller area.

Future research to study different diets In the future, we want to study the effect of different prebiotic combinations over a longer period of time, as well as the impact of an intermittent natural fiber diet.
Researchers would also like to find the biomarkers that signal the state of the mucus layer in human guts, such as the number of mucus-degrading bacteria.
We would like to study the impact of a low-fiber diet on chronic illnesses such as inflammatory bowel disease.
“While this work was in mice, the take-home message for humans amplifies everything that doctors and nutritionists have been telling us for decades: Eat a lot of fiber from diverse natural sources.
Your diet directly influences your microbiota, and from there it may influence the status of your gut’s mucus layer and tendency toward disease. But it’s an open question of whether we can cure our cultural lack of fiber with something more purified and easy to ingest than a lot of broccoli.”intestinal-bacteria-under-a-magnifying-glass