Some sweetened beverages can have more sugar than a 12-ounce can of Coca Cola.
It’s not news that too much sugar isn’t good for you.
Indeed, soda, candy, and sticky-sweet confections can take a toll on your waistline, not to mention your teeth.Now, the specific connection between diseases and sugary beverages, such as soda, sports drinks, and sweetened coffee beverages, is clearer.
Earlier this month, the journal of the American Heart Association released findings that show people who drink sugar-sweetened beverages have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and some cancers.No matter what drink you take, excessive consumption [of sugar] is a problem. High overall sugar intake from any drink like coffee with sugar or juices can lead to problems. Higher consumption of sugar leads to increased incidence of weight gain and diabetes, which in turn leads to increased risk for heart attacks and strokes.This study joins previous research that points to the relationship between a high-sugar diet and negative heart health outcomes.However, in this one, the authors controlled for other dietary factors, physical activity, and body mass index, items that could be independently linked with sugar-sweetened beverages.The results still pointed to the damaging effects sugary beverages may have, regardless of other possible cardiovascular risk factors.
Sugar replacements are risky, too
A secondary finding of the Circulation study suggests people who replace one sugary drink per day with an artificially-sweetened drink (such as a diet soda) have a slightly lower risk of death.However, if a woman drinks four or more artificially-sweetened drinks per day, she has a higher risk of death.Low-calorie drinks, while containing less sugar, also carry an increased risk.
What beverages are not OK?
Soda is the poster star of sugar problems, but Americans are actually drinking fewer sugary drinks like soda today than any time in the past decade.
Yet, 1 in 10 people still get more than a quarter of their daily calories from sugar.
That’s not all coming from soda.
A 12-ounce can of Coca-Cola Classic has 39 grams of sugar. You may be unlikely to reach for the syrupy soda after a workout, but the Gatorade you down on your way out the door has 34 grams.
Feeling a little sluggish in the afternoon? Instead of a 20-ounce bottle of Pepsi (69 grams), you may take a quick jaunt down to Starbucks for a Grande Mocha Frappuccino (skim milk and no whip, please), which has —are you ready? —59 grams of sugar. Even the extra 500 steps won’t burn off that sugar crush.
Are you stocking sugary “smoothies” in your fridge, sipping them on your commute to the office, as a way to get more fruit into your diet? A 15.2-ounce bottle promises apples, bananas, blueberries, and blackberries — all while delivering 55 grams of sugar.
Does fruit provide a bit of a health halo for that much sugar?
“Any liquid source of sugar, even if it is a naturally occurring form that is in a concentrate, will have the same impact,” she told Healthline. “The blood sugar and insulin levels still spike and fall with all of these options. You can dress up a drink with over 10 grams of sugar any way you like, but in the end, it’s still just sugar.”
More than 60 different names for sugar could be listed on an ingredient label.
Fruit juice concentrate seems natural, but it’s a form of sugar. Brown rice syrup? That’s sugar. Beets are healthy, so what about beet sugar? Still sugar.
If, however, you’re not keen to memorize five dozen random words, keep this rule in mind: water is best.
How to quit sugar for good
Drinking water in place of sugary drinks is a healthy choice that could contribute to longevity. Diet soda may be used to help frequent consumers of sugary drinks cut back their consumption, but water is the best and healthiest choice.
To get your daily sugar consumption down, it’s important to understand what you’re actually eating in a day. A food diary can help.
Whether you record your food in a smartphone app or hand-write everything in a notebook, jotting down what you typically eat for several weeks will give you an idea of what you’re taking in and how much, if any, you need to cut to reach recommended guidelines.Per the American Heart Association, men should consume no more than nine teaspoons or 36 grams of added sugar a day, and women no more than six teaspoons or 25 grams of added sugar per day. To put this in perspective, one 12-ounce can of regular soda has eight teaspoons of sugar.
From there, the process of cutting back begins. Ask what you can reasonably get rid of. If cravings occur… you can look toward fresh fruit like berries or apples. If cola is your big thing, start there, and try a cold turkey approach, not replacing a regular soda with a diet option.It’s not an easy task. Research shows sugar has qualities that may cause an addiction, and your body will call out for it.
Part of your goals must involve support from family and friends and an environment in which sugar is not easily accessible. If this is too tough to do, then consider simply slashing all foods from your diet that have more than four grams of added sugar per serving
Prostate cancer affects the prostate gland, the gland that produces some of the fluid in semen and plays a role in urine control in men.
The prostate gland is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum.
In the United States, it is the most common cancer in men, but it is also treatable if found in the early stages.
In 2017, the American Cancer Society predicts that there will be around 161,360 new diagnoses of prostate cancer, and that around 26,730 fatalities will occur because of it.
Regular testing is crucial as the cancer needs to be diagnosed before metastasis.
Fast facts on prostate cancer:
Here are some key points about the prostate cancer. More detail is in the main article.
The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men.
It is treatable if diagnosed early, before it spreads.
If symptoms appear, they include problems with urination.
Regular screening Is the best way to detect it in good time.
There are usually no symptoms during the early stages of prostate cancer. However, if symptoms do appear, they usually involve one or more of the following:
- frequent urges to urinate, including at night
- difficulty commencing and maintaining urination
- blood in the urine
- painful urination and, less commonly, ejaculation
- difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection may be difficult
Advanced prostate cancer can involve the following symptoms:
- bone pain, often in the spine, femur, pelvis, or ribs
- bone fractures
If the cancer spreads to the spine and compresses the spinal cord, there may be:
- leg weakness
- urinary incontinence
- fecal incontinence
Treatment is different for early and advanced prostate cancers.
Early stage prostate cancer
If the cancer is small and localized, it is usually managed by one of the following treatments:
Watchful waiting or monitoring: PSA blood levels are regularly checked, but there is no immediate action. The risk of side-effects sometimes outweighs the need for immediate treatment for this slow-developing cancer.
Radical prostatectomy: The prostate is surgically removed. Traditional surgery requires a hospital stay of up to 10 days, with a recovery time of up to 3 months. Robotic keyhole surgery involves a shorter hospitalization and recovery period, but it can be more expensive. Patients should speak to their insurer about coverage.
Brachytherapy: Radioactive seeds are implanted into the prostate to deliver targeted radiation treatment.
Conformal radiation therapy: Radiation beams are shaped so that the region where they overlap is as close to the same shape as the organ or region that requires treatment. This minimizes healthy tissue exposure to radiation.
Intensity modulated radiation therapy: Beams with variable intensity are used. This is an advanced form of conformal radiation therapy.
In the early stages, patients may receive radiation therapy combined with hormone therapy for 4 to 6 months.
Treatment recommendations depend on individual cases. The patient should discuss all available options with their urologist or oncologist.
Advanced prostate cancer
Advanced cancer is more aggressive and will have spread further throughout the body.
Chemotherapy may be recommended, as it can kill cancer cells around the body.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), or androgen suppression therapy, is a hormone treatment that reduces the effect of androgen. Androgens are male hormones that can stimulate cancer growth. ADT can slow down and even stop cancer growth by reducing androgen levels.
The patient will likely need long-term hormone therapy.
Even if the hormone therapy stops working after a while, there may be other options. Participation in clinical trials is one option that a patient may wish to discuss with the doctor.
Radical prostatectomy is not currently an option for advanced cases, as it does not treat the cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.
As the prostate is directly involved with sexual reproduction, removing it affects semen production and fertility.
Radiation therapy affects the prostate tissue and often reduces the ability to father children. The sperm can be damaged and the semen insufficient for transporting sperm.
Non-surgical options, too, can severely inhibit a man’s reproductive capacity.
Options for preserving these functions can include donating to a sperm bank before surgery, or having sperm extracted directly from the testicles for artificial insemination into an egg. However, the success of these options is never guaranteed.
Patients with prostate cancer can speak to a fertility doctor if they still intend to father children.
What causes prostate cancer?
The prostate is a walnut-sized exocrine gland. This means that it’s fluids and secretions are intended for use outside of the body.
The prostate produces the fluid that nourishes and transports sperm on their journey to fuse with a female ovum, or egg, and produce human life. The prostate contracts and forces these fluids out during orgasm.
The protein excreted by the prostate, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), helps semen retain its liquid state. An excess of this protein in the blood is one of the first signs of prostate cancer.
The urethra is tube through which sperm and urine exit the body. It also passes through the prostate.
As such, the prostate is also responsible for urine control. It can tighten and restrict the flow of urine through the urethra using thousands of tiny muscle fibers.
How does it start?
It usually starts in the glandular cells. This is known as adenocarcinoma. Tiny changes occur in the shape and size of the prostate gland cells, known as prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). This tends to happen slowly and does not show symptoms until further into the progression.
Nearly 50 percent of all men over the age of 50 years have PIN. High-grade PIN is considered pre-cancerous, and it requires further investigation. Low-grade PIN is not a cause for concern.
Prostate cancer can be successfully treated if it is diagnosed before metastasis, but if it spreads, it is more dangerous. It most commonly spreads to the bones.
Staging takes into account the size and extent of the tumor and the scale of the metastasis (whether it has traveled to other organs and tissues).
At Stage 0, the tumor has neither spread from the prostate gland nor invaded deeply into it. At Stage 4, the cancer has spread to distant sites and organs.
A doctor will carry out a physical examination and enquire about any ongoing medical history. If the patient has symptoms, or if a routine blood test shows abnormally high PSA levels, further examinations may be requested.
Tests may include:
- a digital rectal examination (DRE), in which a doctor will manually check for any abnormalities of the prostate with their finger
- a biomarker test checking the blood, urine, or body tissues of a person with cancer for chemicals unique to individuals with cancer
If these tests show abnormal results, further tests will include:
- a PCA3 test examining the urine for the PCA3 gene only found in prostate cancer cells
- a transrectal ultrasound scan providing imaging of the affected region using a probe that emits sounds
- a biopsy, or the removal of 12 to 14 small pieces of tissue from several areas of the prostate for examination under a microscope
These will help confirm the stage of the cancer, whether it has spread, and what treatment is appropriate.
To track any spread, or metastasis, doctors may use a bone, CT scan, or MRI scan.
If the disease is found before it spreads to other organs in a process known as metastasis, the 5-year survival rate is 99 percent. After fifteen years, this decreases to 96 percent. Once the cancer metastasizes, or spreads, the 5-year survival rate is 29 percent.
Regular screening can help detect prostate cancer while it is still treatable.
The exact cause of prostate cancer is unclear, but there are many possible risk factors.
Prostate cancer is rare among men under the age of 45 years, but more common after the age of 50 years.
Prostate cancer occurs most frequently in North America, northwestern Europe, on the Caribbean islands, and in Australia. The reasons remain unclear.
Certain genetic and ethnic groups have an increased risk of prostate cancer.
In the U.S., prostate cancer is at least 60 percent more common and 2 to 3 times more deadly among black men than non-Hispanic white men.
A man also has a much higher risk of developing cancer if his identical twin has it, and a man whose brother or father had prostate cancer has twice the risk of developing it compared to other men. Having a brother who has or has had prostate cancer is more of a genetic risk than having a father with the disease.
Studies have suggested that a diet high in red meat or high-fat dairy products may increase a person’s chances of developing prostate cancer, but the link is neither confirmed nor clear.
Some research has suggested that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use may reduce the risk of prostate cancer. Others have linked NSAID use with a higher risk of death from the disease. This is a controversial area, and results have not been confirmed.
There has also been some investigation into whether statins might slow the progression of prostate cancer. One 2016 study concluded that results were “weak and inconsistent.”
It is often believed that obesity is linked to the development of prostate cancer, but the American Cancer Society maintains that there is no clear link.
Some studies have found that obesity increases the risk of death in advanced cancers. Studies have also concluded that obesity decreases the risk that a cancer will be low-grade if it does occur.
Exposure to Agent Orange, a chemical weapon used in the Vietnam war, may possibly be linked to the development of more aggressive types of cancer, but the extent of this has not been confirmed.
A new study has revealed that a diet rich in protein and low in calories can help older adults with obesity lose more weight while maintaining muscle mass and improving bone density.
Older adults often lose bone density and muscle mass when they concentrate on shedding weight.
This unwanted bone and muscle loss can result in mobility issues and can even increase a person’s risk of injury.
A recent study, which Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, NC, is the lead on, has shown that a high-protein, low-calorie diet can help adults avoid these problems.
Several peer-reviewed journals, which include Journals of Gerontology: Medical Sciences and American Journal of Clinical Nutrition have accepted four research papers from the study for publication.
The researchers randomly selected 96 adults over 65 years of age and assigned them to one of two groups.
They put the first group on a 6-month, low-calorie meal plan that was also high in protein — more than 1 gram (g) of protein per kilogram (kg) of body weight. They assigned the other group to a weight-maintenance plan that included 0.8 g of protein per kg of body weight.
Those in the high-protein, low-calorie diet group experienced the most weight loss, but more revealing was that those in this group maintained their muscle mass. They also lost weight on the stomach, hips, thighs, and rear, which can decrease the risk of certain medical conditions, including diabetes and stroke.
Furthermore, the researchers found that the participants in the high-protein group improved their bone quality, and they gained 0.75 points on their Health Aging Index scores, involving longevity and mortality biomarkers.
Consequently, the study asked those in the weight-loss group to use four meal replacements every day and to prepare two meals of lean protein and vegetables each day. The team allowed each participant one healthy snack per day to wrap up a low-calorie, high-protein meal plan. Those in the other group were instructed to maintain their regular diet and usual activities.
Older adults have unique nutritional needs and may need to make changes to their diets as the years go by. Muscle mass can decrease as a natural part of aging, and people do not burn calories at the same rate as they do during their younger years.
Targeting nutrient-dense foods is essential for older adults, and avoidance of high-calorie foods that lack vital nutrients is crucial.
Beneficial foods include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, legumes, and low-fat dairy. Portion control may also be necessary — for older adults especially — as people may eat more food than they need.
It can be challenging to cook for a smaller family, so experts sometimes suggest cooking ahead and freezing portions to eat later when cooking is less appealing.
The particulars of this latest study seem to mirror the nutritional needs of older adults. However, the authors suggest that the addition of more protein may be the key to avoiding some of the unhealthful pitfalls that can take place when an older adult loses weight.
This study suggests that a diet high in protein and low in calories can give seniors the health benefits of weight loss while keeping the muscle and bone they need for better quality of life as they age.
Diabetes and Alzheimer’s: What’s the link?
New research has shown that impaired insulin signaling in the brain, often a feature of diabetes, may negatively impact cognition, mood, and metabolism — all of which are common aspects of Alzheimer’s disease.
A new study examines the links between Alzheimer’s and diabetes.
Although the conditions are seemingly independent of each other, earlier studies have found that people with type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease.
However, the mechanisms behind this relationship have remained hidden.
A recent study investigated the impact of blocking insulin receptors and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) receptors in mouse models.
The work was carried out at the Joslin Diabetes Center, affiliated with Harvard Medical School in Boston, MA. The results reveal that interrupting these similar pathways impaired both learning and memory.
The researchers published their findings in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Insulin receptors and learning
The researchers worked with both the hippocampus and the central amygdala, areas of the brain that help with cognition function, as well as metabolic control.
They looked into how mice with disabled insulin and IGF1 receptors tackled mazes, and the results were revealing.
First, the researchers allowed the mice to explore the maze to familiarize themselves with its layout, and then they blocked a pathway before reintroducing the mice to the labyrinth.
These particular mice failed to analyze the new barricade and instead tried to go through the maze as if it was the way it had always been.
This is the first study that shows a relationship between these disrupted pathways and cognition problems.
Since these two receptors can partially compensate for one another, what we did that was critical was this combined insulin and IGF receptor knockout.
However, it was also important to do it in specific regions, since if it was everywhere it might have impaired brain development. By knocking out both [receptors], we removed not only the primary way they work but the backup system that’s already built in.”
Alzheimer’s is not a normal part of aging
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia, which is when a person is experiencing memory loss and other cognition issues that are severe enough to interfere with daily life.
Alzheimer’s, though, is not a normal part of aging, and while most of those who have it are 65 years of age and older, it can affect people who are younger.
Alzheimer’s does not get better over time, and, in most cases, it tends to worsen until the person loses the ability to carry on a conversation or respond to what is happening around them.
There is no cure for the condition, but there are treatments available that can slow down progression and may improve the individual’s overall quality of life.
There are risk factors that scientists have associated with developing Alzheimer’s disease. There are some factors that people cannot control, for example, age, family history, and genetics. People might be able to influence other potential causes, however, including head injuries and heart disease.
Other conditions that can lead to vascular damage, such as high blood pressure and stroke, may also be factors in Alzheimer’s risk.
Diabetes is also a risk factor
Additionally, diabetes is a known risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Other studies have shown a connection between insulin pathways and premature cognitive decline, dementia, depression, and anxiety.
Also, studies have helped demonstrate that abnormal receptors are present more often in those who have both Alzheimer’s and type 2 diabetes.
The current study is the first to target specific regions to help determine cause and effect.
Next, the researchers want to look at what happens when they cross the mice they used in this study with mice that are genetically prone to developing Alzheimer’s.
Investigating these connections, they say, may lead to recommendations of lifestyle changes well before a disease process even begins.
With diabetes and obesity, there is resistance in these pathways and, therefore, we think that this could be an important factor as to why people with Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes have a faster-accelerated course or have more Alzheimer’s disease.
Dr. Afshin Shawn Adhami M.D
In a recent study, researchers have compared the effects of a plant-based meal with those of a meal that includes animal-derived products on a person’s health. The study concludes that vegan meals may help a person stay healthy and manage weight gain.
New research shows how plant-based meals contribute to your health.
In the United States, approximately 93.3 million people live with obesity, and over 100 million have diabetes or prediabetes.
A key factor in the development of these metabolic conditions is diet.
According to the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion’s dietary guidelines for 2015-2020, “the typical eating patterns currently consumed by many in the US do not align” with official recommendations.
Their estimates indicate that approximately “three-fourths of the population” does not consume enough vegetables, fruits, dairy products, or oils.
New research conducted by investigators from three international institutions now suggests that following a plant-based diet could have a beneficial impact on many aspects of a person’s health.
More specifically, the study’s findings suggest that following a vegan type diet fosters the presence of certain gut hormones that help to regulate blood pressure.
These hormones also help a person feel fuller sooner, and their action is thus beneficial for weight management.
Promoting good gut hormones
In this study, the research team worked with 60 male participants, of whom 20 had a diagnosis of obesity, 20 had type 2 diabetes, and a further 20 had no health complaints and made up the control group.
The researchers split the participants randomly so that some of them ate a vegan meal with tofu, while others ate a meal of processed meat and cheese. The researchers matched both meals for the number of calories and macronutrients.
Regardless of whether they had diabetes, obesity, or no health problems at all, the people who ate the vegan meal had a higher level of beneficial gut hormones than the people who ate meat and cheese.
The beneficial gut hormones, the researchers explain, help regulate glucose (simple sugar) levels, insulin production, and energy levels. They also help increase the feeling of satiety, thus contributing to weight management.
According to the investigators, people may feel fuller because plant-based foods are rich in fiber, which can increase satiety but do not add extra calories.
These beneficial gut hormones can help keep weight down, enhance insulin secretion, regulate blood sugar, and keep us feeling full longer.
The fact that simple meal choices can increase the secretion of these healthy hormones has important implications for those with type 2 diabetes or weight problems.
In previous research, we found that vegan diets can help people with type 2 diabetes by increasing insulin secretion and improving insulin sensitivity.
The current study strengthens previously uncovered proof of the benefits afforded by plant-based diets, and further shows that it can contribute to weight management.
This study adds to the mounting evidence that plant-based diets can help manage and prevent type 2 diabetes and obesity.
Dr. Afshin Shawn Adhami M.D
Stress may raise the risk of Alzheimer’s disease
New research suggests that vital exhaustion, a marker of psychological distress, may raise the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.
Many factors may increase Alzheimer’s risk, including age, family history, and genetic makeup.
Certain health issues, such as cardiovascular disease or diabetes, may also influence the odds of experiencing dementia because they impact the blood vessels.
New research indicates that psychological factors could also affect risk. Psychological distress, in particular, may increase the likelihood of developing dementia, suggests the new study.
Vital exhaustion describes “a mental state of psychological distress” that manifests as irritability, fatigue, and a feeling of demoralization.
As the researchers explain, vital exhaustion may be a reaction to “unsolvable problems” in one’s life, especially when the person has been exposed to stressors for a prolonged period. So, vital exhaustion can be seen as a sign of psychological distress.
Previous studies have noted that vital exhaustion may raise the risk of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, premature death, and obesity, among other conditions.
Regarding the possible mechanisms that may underpin the findings, the researchers point to excessive levels of the stress hormone cortisol and cardiovascular changes as potential culprits.
Stress can have severe and harmful consequences, not just for our brain health, but our health in general.
Cardiovascular risk factors are well-known, modifiable risk factors for dementia, and in some countries, a stagnation or even a decreasing incidence of dementia has been observed.
Our study indicates that we can go further in the prevention of dementia by addressing psychological risk factors for dementia.