Chicken allergies

Chicken allergies

People with a chicken allergy may have an allergic reaction after eating chicken meat, or, sometimes, after their skin comes into contact with chicken feathers.

While fish and seafood are often the primary sources of food allergies, allergies to other types of meat are less common.

Most people with an allergy to chicken will notice mild symptoms and discomfort after eating or touching it. However, some people may develop severe reactions that require medical attention.

Chicken allergies and intolerances

People can have an allergy or intolerance to chicken meat or other chicken products, including feathers or eggs.

An allergy usually involves more generalized symptoms, such as swelling and rashes, while an intolerance involves digestive issues, such as diarrhea.

Another uncommon condition, known as bird-egg syndrome, occurs when a person eats undercooked or raw egg yolks or inhales feathers or particles from a chicken.

Are chicken allergies common?

Allergic reactions to chicken meat are rare. They can affect both adults and children. They are most often seen in adolescents, though may begin around preschool age.An allergy to chicken meat may occur as a primary allergy (a true allergy), or as a secondary allergy caused by cross-reactivity with another allergy, such as an allergy to eggs, though this is rare.

Symptoms of a chicken allergy

A chicken allergy can cause symptoms that range in severity. Since it is a rare condition, it is difficult to say what the most common reactions are.

However, people with chicken meat allergies or intolerance may experience the following symptoms after eating or coming into contact with chicken meat:

  • coughing or wheezing
  • red, irritated skin
  • hives
  • an inflamed or swollen throat
  • swollen tongue or lips
  • sneezing
  • nausea or vomiting
  • stomach cramps
  • diarrhea
  • a sore throat
  • swollen, watery eyes

In more severe cases, people may experience a dangerous allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis. Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:

  • trouble breathing
  • heart palpitations
  • a racing heart
  • drop in blood pressure
  • loss of consciousness
  • wheezing

If a person experiences any of the above symptoms after eating cooked chicken or handling raw chicken, they should get medical attention immediately as anaphylaxis is a life-threatening condition.

Can you be allergic to chicken but not eggs?

If a person has a primary allergy to chicken meat, it does not mean they will have an allergy to chicken eggs. In other cases, people may develop a secondary sensitivity to chicken meat as a result of other allergies, such as in bird-egg syndrome.

There are only a few reports of people with a chicken egg allergy and also a chicken meat allergy.

Doctors do not consider people with bird-egg syndrome to have a primary or true chicken meat allergy. These people experience an allergic reaction to a specific protein found in both egg yolks and chickens.

Managing chicken allergies

People with a chicken meat allergy should avoid any contact with raw or cooked chicken meat and unless told otherwise by their doctor, chicken products.

Although not always the case, some people may also need to avoid chicken eggs, especially raw or undercooked eggs. These are present in many products, such as raw cookie dough or batter. Always check the label.

In cases of accidental exposure, people can try over-the-counter antihistamines. Antihistamines can help stop the immune system from overreacting to the chicken.

Anyone experiencing a severe reaction should get medical attention immediately, and use an injectable epinephrine shot, often known by the brand name EpiPen.

Risk factors

A person with a chicken meat allergy may be allergic to other related substances.

People with chicken meat allergies may need to avoid eating some or all of the following:

  • chicken broth
  • other chicken products
  • geese
  • turkey
  • fish and shrimp
  • duck
  • partridge
  • pheasant
  • eggs

They may also need to avoid exposure to chicken feathers and other poultry, including domestic birds.

Some people may choose to avoid certain domestic products, such as feathered-filled pillows.

Some vaccinations, such as yellow fever, contain chicken protein. This can cause an allergic reaction if injected.

People with any food allergy should talk with their doctor about which specific things they need to avoid.

When to see a doctor

People should see their doctor if they experience any symptoms of an allergic reaction up to a couple of hours after eating chicken meat.

Even if the reaction is mild, a doctor can help a person figure out the cause of their symptoms, treat reactions, and plan ways to avoid future contact with allergens.

If a person experiences any of the signs of anaphylaxis, they will require immediate medical attention. After recovering, the person should make a follow-up appointment with their doctor. When a person experiences a severe reaction for the first time, a doctor will prescribe an EpiPen or similar injector.

Home remedies to clean your ears

How to clean your ears Methods to avoid Symptoms of earwax blockage? When to See a doctor? Takeaway tips

Earwax is how the body lubricates and protects the ear. People do not usually need to clean out their ears, but sometimes earwax and other debris can build up.

Earwax, or cerumen, leaves the body slowly. Chewing and moving the jaw pushes the earwax from the canal to the outer ear. When the earwax and dead skin it collects reaches the outer ear, it dries up and flakes off.

According to the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery (AAO–HNS), earwax has natural antibacterial properties that may help protect the ear from infections.

Cleaning the ear too often can lead to dry, itchy ears. Using an object, such as a cotton swab, for cleaning the earwax may actually push it back into the ear. Cleaning out earwax that is not causing any symptoms is not usually needed or recommended.

Still, there are times when a person may need to clean their ears if wax or debris has built up to the point that it causes symptoms, such as muffled hearing. In this article, learn how to clean your ears at home.

How to clean your ears

A person can use an irrigation kit to safely clean the ears.

The safest approach to cleaning ears is to visit a doctor or other healthcare professional, as they can use specialized instruments to remove any excessive earwax or debris safely.

These instruments may include:

  • a suction device
  • a spoon-like tool
  • forceps

A doctor can also help determine if other underlying health conditions may require attention.

If a person still wishes to clean their ears at home, they can try one of the following methods:

Using a damp cloth

A person can wet a cloth or paper towel with lukewarm water. After wringing out the excess, they can use the cloth to clean the outer areas of the ear.

It is never a good idea to insert an object into the ear.

Mineral oil or traditional ear drops

People can buy ear drops to use at home over the counter or online.

Alternatively, there are several solutions people can use as ear drops to loosen an earwax buildup and make it easier to remove.

Solution include:

  • baby oil
  • mineral oil
  • glycerin
  • hydrogen peroxide
  • carbamide peroxide

Irrigation

A person can buy an irrigation kit that uses plain water or a combination of water and saline solution, or they can visit a doctor for professional irrigation. They may want to use ear drops before irrigation. A variety of irrigation kits are available for purchase online.

To start the procedure, a person should warm up the water and ear drops to about body temperature before they apply them to avoid side effects, such as dizziness. However, people should take care not to make the solution too hot, as it may lead to a burn.

To irrigate the ear, a person uses a syringe and squirts the water or saline solution into the ear canal. They should let any ear drops applied before irrigation sit in the ear for about 15 to 30 minutes by keeping their head tilted to one side.

The AAO–HNS warn against certain individuals using irrigation. People should not use irrigation to clean their ears if they have:

  • holes in their eardrum
  • diabetes
  • eczema or other skin conditions in or near the ear
  • a weakened immune system
  • a tube in their eardrum

Methods to avoid

Avoid using cotton swabs to remove earwax.

One of the most common methods people use at home to clean their ears is cotton swabs. The risks of using cotton swabs include:

  • pushing earwax deeper into the ear
  • slowing down the natural process of earwax removal
  • injuring the eardrum
  • getting the swab stuck in the ear

Doctors and the United States Food and Drug Association (FDA) also warn against using earwax candles.

Cleaning the ear with earwax candles involves inserting a conical wax-coated cloth into the ear canal. The individual then lights the exposed end of the fabric so that it burns. This method can result in:

  • burns to the skin
  • a blockage of candle wax in the ear
  • fires in the home
  • holes in the membrane between the ear canal and middle ear
  • bleeding
  • a punctured eardrum

It is never a good idea to insert any object directly into the ear, as doing this can cause injuries and push earwax further down.

Cleaning the ears too often can remove wax that serves to protect them from bacteria and other debris.

Symptoms of earwax blockage

When earwax builds up in the ear, a person may experience some minor hearing loss and irritation in the ear.

People can also experience a sensation of fullness in the ear. In some cases, this may occur alongside an earache.

When to see a doctor

A doctor can diagnose ear infections and remove earwax blockages.

A person should see their doctor if they are experiencing an earwax blockage and do not feel comfortable using an at-home cleaning solution.

A person should also see their doctor if they have signs of an ear infection, such as:

  • pain in or around the ear
  • fluid draining from the ear
  • difficulty hearing

In addition to acute infections, a person should consult their doctor if they experience repeated blockages. The doctor can discuss ways to try to prevent this from happening. A person can schedule regular cleanings with their doctor to help keep their ears clean and free of any blockages.

Takeaway

Earwax serves an essential function by keeping the ears clean of debris and bacteria. In most cases, earwax will naturally leave the body without interference.

Having a doctor or another medical professional remove the excess wax is the safest and best way to clear a blockage.

For those interested in at-home solutions, there are several safe methods that do not involve the risk of inserting objects into the ears.

13 Habits to avoid during pregnancy

Most women can continue with their everyday activities during pregnancy and only need to make some minor lifestyle changes. The health and well-being of both the woman and the developing fetus are of primary concern during pregnancy, so it is best to avoid consuming certain foods and doing potentially risky activities.

1)Drinking alcohol

When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol crosses the placenta and can affect the fetus. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome.

A fetus that gets exposure to alcohol in the womb may develop a wide range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. These disorders can cause the following health issues:

  • physical abnormalities
  • intellectual disabilities
  • behavioral problems
  • seizures
  • poor growth
  • developmental delays
  • reduced coordination and fine motor skills

2)Eating certain foods

It is common for pregnant women to avoid certain foods during pregnancy, either due to a change in their sense of smell or because the food makes them feel ill. However, there are some foods that all pregnant women should avoid eating. These include:

  • Lunch meat and deli salads: Deli meats and foods, such as premade chicken salad, may contain listeria. Listeria is a bacteria that can cross the placenta and may be deadly for the fetus.
  • Unpasteurized juice and dairy: As with deli meats, unpasteurized dairy products and juices can contain listeria and other bacteria that may cause food poisoning.
  • Some soft cheeses: Certain soft cheese may contain unpasteurized dairy, particularly imported soft cheeses, such as brie, feta, and queso blanco.
  • Fish high in mercury: Swordfish, shark, and mackerel are among the fish that contain high levels of mercury. According to March of Dimes, exposing the fetus to mercury may cause brain damage or hearing and vision problems.
  • Raw meat and fish: Raw meat and fish, including sushi and raw oysters, can contain both salmonella and toxoplasmosis. Pregnant women have an increased risk of getting foodborne illness from these pathogens. Foodborne illness may cause dehydration, fever, and intrauterine sepsis, a blood infection that can be deadly to the fetus.
  • Raw eggs: Raw eggs can also contain salmonella. Pregnant women should avoid any foods that may contain raw eggs, such as unbaked cookie dough or homemade Caesar salad dressing.

3)Too much caffeine

In the same way as alcohol, caffeine can cross the placenta and affect the fetus.

While much of the data regarding pregnancy and caffeine consumption is inconclusive, research suggests that it is best to limit the intake of caffeine to 300 milligrams (mg) per day. Some experts believe that quantities greater than this can be harmful to the fetus and may increase the risk of pregnancy loss and low birth weight.

March of Dimes recommend that pregnant women consume no more than 200 mg of caffeine per day. This amounts to about 1.5 cups of coffee per day.

4)Hot tubs, saunas, and overheating

While relaxing in hot water may sound like an effective way to ease pregnancy discomfort, experts recommend avoiding hot tubs and saunas.

According to the American Pregnancy Association, hot tubs can cause hyperthermia, or abnormally high body temperature, which may lead to congenital abnormalities.

Additional activities that may cause the body temperature to rise too high include:

  • hot yoga or Pilates
  • sunbathing for too long
  • exposure to extreme heat
  • strenuous exercise
  • dehydration

5)Contact sports

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend that pregnant women avoid contact sports, such as football or boxing.

Contact sports increase the risk of placental abruption, which is the premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall. Placental abruption is a severe condition that can cause preterm birth, pregnancy loss, or stillbirth.

Pregnant women are also more prone to injury as hormonal changes in the body cause the ligaments to become looser.

6)Activities with a fall risk

After the first trimester, pregnant women should avoid any activity which carries the risk of falling, including skiing, ice-skating, and rock climbing.

During pregnancy, the center of gravity shifts as the belly expands, so even a minor fall may result in injuries.

7)Amusement park rides

Many amusement parks do not allow pregnant women on some rides, including roller coasters or any rides that may start or stop suddenly.

The jarring motion of these rides can cause placental abruption.

8)Changing a litter box

Pregnant women should avoid changing a litter box. Cleaning dirty litter boxes can put a person at risk of toxoplasmosis.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), if a pregnant woman passes toxoplasmosis to the fetus, the baby may develop severe symptoms, including:

  • blindness
  • intellectual disabilities
  • brain damage
  • eye damage

9)Heavy lifting

According to the American Pregnancy Association, pregnant women should avoid heavy lifting. For some women, lifting heavy objects can increase the risk of:

  • pulled muscles
  • hernias
  • low birth weight
  • preterm labor

10)Smoking

Smoking cigarettes during pregnancy can cause harm to both the woman and the baby. Aside from an increased risk of heart disease and lung cancer, smoking when pregnant can also cause the following problems during and after pregnancy:

  • premature birth
  • congenital abnormalities, such as cleft lip or cleft palate
  • sudden infant death syndrome
  • issues with the placenta

Women should stop smoking as soon as they know that they are pregnant and avoid exposure to secondhand smoke. Women who are struggling to quit smoking can talk to a doctor about the help and additional resources that are available.

11)Drugs

While illegal drug use is always dangerous, it can be even more harmful during pregnancy.

Using illegal drugs or misusing certain prescription drugs can cause a newborn to go through neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). A baby with NAS will go through substance withdrawal at birth.

Additionally, drug use can increase the risk of stillbirth, pregnancy loss, and congenital abnormalities.

12)Taking certain medications

Pregnant women should avoid some over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications while pregnant, as these can harm the fetus.

Doctors recommend avoiding the following medications while pregnant:

  • ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 
  • most herbal remedies
  • ACE inhibitors
  • some cold medications during the first trimester
  • cold and flu medications that contain specific ingredients
  • some acne medications

A doctor or pharmacist can provide advice on which medications are safe to use and can often recommend alternatives if women can no longer take their regular medicines.

13)Some types of exercise

Although doctors recommend that most pregnant women exercise, certain types of exercise are not suitable during pregnancy.

Pregnant women should try to avoid exercise that involves:

  • bouncing, leaping, and jumping
  • sudden changes in direction
  • jarring or jerky movements
  • abdominal exercises on the back, such as situps, after the first trimester

Many exercises, such as walking, swimming, and squats, can be beneficial during pregnancy. It is best to speak to a doctor about any existing or new exercise routines.

 

Which fruits should you eat during pregnancy?

Making healthful food choices is crucial for women when they are pregnant. Their diet will provide the fetus with the nutrients essential for growth and development.

A nutritious diet plays an essential role in a person’s overall health, helping the body to function effectively and reducing the risk of some diseases.

Most people are aware that a healthful diet should include plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and healthful fats. However, they may not realize that specific fruits are particularly beneficial during pregnancy.

In this article, we explain why it is important to eat fruit during pregnancy. We also cover which fruits are best to eat during this time, and which types of fruit pregnant women may wish to avoid.

What are the benefits of eating fruit during pregnancy?

Fruits provide vitamins and nutrients that are essential during pregnancy.

Eating a healthful, varied diet is particularly important during pregnancy as the right nutrients can help the fetus to develop and grow as it should.

In addition to supporting the growing baby, an increased intake of vitamins and minerals can help a pregnant woman keep her own body in the best condition possible.

Eating plenty of fresh fruit during pregnancy can help to ensure that both the woman and baby remain healthy. Fresh fruit contains lots of essential vitamins and nutrients and is a good source of fiber too.

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The best fruits to eat during pregnancy

Snacking on fruit can be a great way to boost vitamin intake in addition to curbing sugar cravings.

1. Apricots

Apricots contain:

  • vitamins A, C, and E
  • calcium
  • iron
  • potassium
  • beta carotene
  • phosphorus
  • silicon

All of these nutrients help with the baby’s development and growth. Iron can prevent anemia and calcium helps bones and teeth grow strong.

2. Oranges

Oranges are an excellent source of:

  • folate
  • vitamin C
  • water

Oranges are great for keeping a person hydrated and healthy. Vitamin C can help prevent cell damage and assist with iron absorption.

Folate can help prevent neural tube defects, which can cause brain and spinal cord abnormalities in a baby. Neural tube defects can cause conditions such as spina bifida, where the spinal cord does not develop properly, and anencephaly, in which a large part of the brain and skull is missing.

3. Mangoes

Mangoes are rich in vitamins A and C.

One cup of chopped mango provides 100 percent of a person’s recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin C and more than a third of their RDA of vitamin A.

A baby born with vitamin A deficiency may have lower immunity and a higher risk of postnatal complications, such as respiratory infections.

4. Pears

Pears provide lots of the following nutrients:

  • fiber
  • potassium
  • folate

Getting plenty of fiber in a pregnancy diet can help ease constipation, a common pregnancy symptom.

Potassium can benefit heart health for both the woman and baby. It also stimulates cell regeneration.

5. Pomegranates

Pomegranates can provide pregnant women with plenty of:

  • vitamin K
  • calcium
  • folate
  • iron
  • protein
  • fiber

Nutrient-dense pomegranates are also a good source of energy, and their high iron content helps prevent iron-deficiency.

Vitamin K is also essential for maintaining healthy bones.

Research suggests that drinking pomegranate juice may help to decrease the risk of injury to the placenta.

6. Avocados

Avocados are an excellent source of:

  • vitamins C, E, and K
  • monounsaturated fatty acids
  • fiber
  • B vitamins
  • potassium
  • copper

Avocados contain healthful fats that provide energy and help to prevent neural tube defects. They also boost the cells responsible for building the skin and brain tissues of the developing baby.

The potassium in avocados can provide relief from leg cramps, another symptom that is common during pregnancy, particularly in the third trimester.

7. Guava

Guava contains vitamin E and folate, making it an ideal fruit to eat during pregnancy.

Guava is an excellent choice of fruit for people wanting more of the following nutrients:

  • vitamins C and E
  • polyphenols
  • carotenoids
  • isoflavonoids
  • folate

Guava contains a varied combination of nutrients, making it ideal for pregnant women. Eating guava during pregnancy can help to relax muscles, aid digestion, and reduce constipation.

8. Bananas

Bananas contain high levels of:

  • vitamin C
  • potassium
  • vitamin B-6
  • fiber

The high fiber content of bananas can help with pregnancy-related constipation, and there is some evidence to suggest that vitamin B-6 can help relieve nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.

9. Grapes

Eating plenty of grapes can boost people’s intake of:

  • vitamins C and K
  • folate
  • antioxidants
  • fiber
  • organic acids
  • pectin

The nutrients in grapes can help to aid the biological changes that occur during pregnancy.

They contain immune-boosting antioxidants, such as flavonol, tannin, linalool, anthocyanins, and geraniol, which also help prevent infections.

10. Berries

Berries are a good source of:

  • vitamin C
  • healthy carbohydrates
  • antioxidants
  • fiber

Berries also contain lots of water, so they are an excellent source of hydration. Vitamin C helps with iron absorption and boosts the body’s immune system.

11. Apples

Apples are packed with nutrients to help a growing fetus, including:

  • vitamins A and C
  • fiber
  • potassium

One study found that eating apples while pregnant may reduce the likelihood of the baby developing asthma and allergies over time.

12. Dried Fruit

The following nutrients occur in dried fruit:

  • fiber
  • vitamins and minerals
  • energy

Dried fruit contains all the same nutrients as fresh fruit. Therefore, pregnant women can get their RDA of vitamins and minerals by eating portions of dried fruits that are smaller than the equivalent amount of fresh fruits.

However, it is important to remember that dried fruit can be high in sugar and does not contain the water content that fresh fruit does. This means that it does not aid digestion. Pregnant women should only eat dried fruits in moderation and should avoid candied fruits altogether.

It is best to eat dried fruits in addition to fresh fruits, rather than instead of them.

How much fruit should someone eat during pregnancy?

The advice for pregnant women is to eat at least five portions of fresh fruit and vegetables each day and to vary these as much as possible. Fruit can be fresh, canned, frozen, or dried.

As a general rule, a serving of fruit is:

  • one piece of fruit, for fruits that are larger than the size of a tennis ball
  • one cup of chopped fruit

Eating plenty of fruit and vegetables during pregnancy provides pregnant women with adequate nutrition to support their developing baby. It should also minimize the risk of certain diseases and defects and help to nourish the woman’s body.

Are there any fruits a person should avoid during pregnancy?

Fruit juice has a high sugar content.

There is no particular fruit that pregnant women should avoid. However, it is essential for women to be aware of portion size. Some fruits have a high sugar content, and certain forms of fruit, such as juices and dried fruits, are often significantly higher in sugar and calories than their fresh counterparts.

Buying organic fruit will ensure that it has not come into contact with fertilizers and pesticides that could damage its quality. However, if organic fruit is not an option, non-organic fruit is still better than eliminating fruit from the diet altogether.

It is important to remove any pesticides and bacteria that might be present on fruit by washing it thoroughly before eating it. People should take other safety precautions by:

  • removing areas of bruised fruit, which are more likely to contain bacteria
  • storing fruit in a separate area of the fridge to any raw meat products
  • avoiding precut melons
  • only drinking pasteurized or boiled fruit juice

Takeaway

Fruit is an excellent source of nutrients that are essential during pregnancy. Fruits can provide vitamins, folate, fiber, and more, which all help to keep the woman and baby healthy. These nutrients can also help to relieve some of the common symptoms of pregnancy.

Pregnant women should aim to consume at least five different portions of fruit and vegetables each day. The 12 fruits listed in this article are particularly good choices during pregnancy. Pregnant women should also limit their intake of dried fruits and fruit juices as these can be high in sugar and calories than fresh types.

What is juvenile psoriatic arthritis?

Psoriatic arthritis usually occurs in people who already have psoriasis. People with psoriatic arthritis experience symptoms of both the skin condition and arthritis.

When children and adolescents develop the condition, doctors diagnose them with juvenile psoriatic arthritis (JPsA).

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an autoimmune disorder.

Medical experts believe that it develops when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy skin cells, causing them to grow too quickly. The cells then build up to form red patches of flaky, crusty skin.

The immune system can also attack a person’s joints and cause pain and inflammation.

Psoriasis affects up to 7.5 million people in the United States. Every year, doctors diagnose around 20,000 children aged under 10 years with the condition.

Research suggests that around one-third of the children or adolescents with psoriasis also develop arthritis.

Symptoms

Symptoms of JPsA can vary considerably among individuals, but they may include:

  • stiffness, pain, and swelling of one or more joints, often located in the fingers or toes
  • pitted nails
  • stiffness in the morning and reduced range of movement
  • fatigue
  • swelling, redness, and pain in the eyes
  • a red and sometimes itchy rash on the joints, scalp, face, and trunk

Causes and risk factors

The medical community does not fully understand what causes JPsA, but it believes that a combination of genetics and environmental triggers may be responsible.

However, a parent may not always pass on the condition to their child, and some people develop JPsA without having a family history of the condition.

Also, environmental factors may trigger the onset of JPsA or cause existing symptoms to flare up.

Possible triggers of psoriasis may include:

  • emotional stress
  • skin damage or injury
  • certain medications
  • some infections, such as strep throat and respiratory infections
  • dietary factors
  • allergies
  • certain types of weather

JPsA most often appears between the ages of 11 and 12. Girls are more likely to develop it when they are younger and boys when they are older.

Some research suggests that young people who are overweight or obese may have an increased risk of developing JPsA.

Diagnosis

Early diagnosis improves the chances of successful treatment and the prevention of joint damage and other complications.

A doctor specializing in pediatrics, a dermatologist, or a rheumatologist will begin by performing a physical examination.

They will also ask the parent or caregiver if there is a family history of psoriasis or arthritis.

If the young person has characteristic symptoms of psoriasis, such as the telltale rash, the diagnosis is usually straightforward.

Otherwise, the doctor can perform several diagnostic tests, such as:

  • Antinuclear antibody blood test. The presence of certain antibodies in the blood can point to autoimmune disorders, including JPsA.
  • MRI or X-ray. These imaging tests can detect damage to the bones or joints.
  • Uric acid test. A raised level of uric acid in the urine can indicate JPsA.
  • Eye exam. The doctor may perform a more detailed examination of the child’s eyes to look for signs of inflammation that can point to JPsA.

Treatment

Treatment for JPsA aims to relieve pain, reduce swelling, and prevent further damage to the joints.

Medications, dietary changes, and physical therapy can help.

A doctor may recommend:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). These include over-the-counter painkillers, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, and some prescription medications. NSAIDS can reduce inflammation, joint pain, and stiffness.
  • Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). A doctor may prescribe these to relieve more severe symptoms. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs are some examples.
  • Biologics. A doctor prescribes these if a person with PsA has not responded to other drug therapies. Biologics are a protein-based drug that targets specific parts of the immune system.

Due to a lack of safety data, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have not approved most DMARDs and biologics for use in children.

However, some doctors may still prescribe these drugs when JPsA is severe or difficult to treat.

Dietary changes can also help some people with JPsA. A doctor may recommend:

  • Nutritional supplementation. Adjusting the diet or taking supplements to boost the intake of vitamin D and calcium can help. These nutrients strengthen and otherwise support the health of the bones.
  • Trigger avoidance. Some foods may trigger symptoms, and avoiding them may help to prevent flare-ups. However, there is limited research in this area.

Physical therapies may include:

  • Exercise. Exercise can strengthen joints and increase flexibility, and it also supports overall health and well-being. A physiotherapist can advise about the best exercise plan for each child.
  • Occupational therapy. An occupational therapist can help to address any issues a child may have when performing everyday tasks.
  • Hydrotherapy. This involves exercising in a warm pool, and it can be a gentle way to strengthen joints and improve flexibility. A physiotherapist usually supervises these sessions.

If a psoriatic rash is present, the doctor may recommend topical treatments, such as moisturizers and steroid creams or ointments.

Light therapy, or phototherapy, can also help to treat this type of rash. Sessions involve exposing the skin to ultraviolet light. A dermatologist will usually carry out these sessions in a clinic or hospital.

The following lifestyle changes can also help to reduce symptoms of JPsA:

  • avoiding smoke from cigarettes and other tobacco products, as secondhand smoke can trigger flare-ups in some children
  • eating a healthful and balanced diet
  • maintaining a healthy weight

Neck Pain & Causes

Neck pain

It is common for people to experience pain in the right side of the neck. In most cases, the pain occurs due to a muscle strain or another benign cause. People can often treat their pain using home remedies and medications. However, for severe or prolonged neck pain, it is best to see a doctor.

The neck is a vital part of the human body, comprising spinal bones, muscles, and other tissue. Unlike some other crucial parts of the body, the neck is exposed and at risk of injury. The neck is also prone to straining because people move it constantly throughout the day.

It is also common for a person to experience pain in connected areas, such as the shoulders, back, jaw, and head.

In this article, we discuss nine common causes of pain in the right side of the neck, as well as treatment options and when to see a doctor.

Causes of pain in the right side of the neck

Some of the most common causes of pain in the right side of the neck include the following:

1. Degeneration or wear and tear

Gradual wear and tear may cause pain on the right side of the neck.

The vertebrae and discs in the neck will wear down with age. As they degenerate, a person may experience chronic, or persistent, pain in the neck.

Some medical conditions can also cause the vertebrae, discs, and other parts of the neck to break down.

These conditions may include:

  • inflammation
  • pinched nerves
  • cervical fractures
  • arthritis
  • cervical disc degeneration

2. Bad sleeping position

It is common to wake up feeling stiffness or pain in the shoulders, back, or neck.The sleeping position that people adopt, the number of pillows that they use, and the firmness of the mattress can all affect how they feel waking up in the morning.

Falling asleep with either a lack of support for the head or the neck out of alignment increases the likelihood of waking up with a sore neck.

3. Non-specific neck pain

In some cases, it is difficult to identify the exact cause of neck pain.

Neck pain without an apparent cause often results from a minor sprain or tear to the muscle tissue. This type of pain is the most common neck pain.

The pain can sometimes be due to poor posture. Holding the neck out of alignment for extended periods can strain the muscles.

This is particularly true when a person is bent forward over their work for several hours during the day.

4. Stress and anxiety

Stress may cause the muscles to tighten. People often talk about holding tension in their neck and back, and they may feel pain from the excess strain.

5. Sudden-onset or acute torticollis

Torticollis is a medical condition in which the head becomes twisted to one side. It can be very painful to try to straighten out the head. The cause of torticollis is not always known.

Doctors suspect that most cases are due to minor ligament or muscle sprains in the neck, although exposing the neck to cold temperatures for an extended period could also be a cause.

Torticollis often occurs overnight, meaning that a person will have no symptoms when they go to bed but will wake up unable to move their neck. In most cases, the pain will subside after a few days and movement will return to normal.

Occasionally, torticollis may be a symptom of a more severe health issue. Some potential underlying causes of torticollis include tumors, infections, and side effects from taking medications.

6. Brachial plexus injury

If the nerves connecting the spinal cord to the hands are damaged, it may cause neck pain.

The American Society for Surgery of the Hand define the brachial plexus as a collection of nerves that connect the spinal cord in the neck to the hands.

If an injury to the neck affects the brachial plexus, pain may also occur in the hand.

A common cause of injury to the brachial plexus is blunt force trauma, which can happen as a result of a sporting injury or car accident.

7. Whiplash or a sudden jolt to the neck

Whiplash describes an injury to the neck where the head jolts forward and then back into place very quickly.

The movement resembles the crack of a whip. People tend to think of whiplash in relation to car accidents, but it can also occur as a result of sporting activities and other sudden movements.

8. Cervical radiculopathy

Cervical radiculopathy, which people often refer to as a pinched nerve, occurs when irritation of the nerves originating in the spinal cord in the neck causes pain to radiate down the arm.

Although this can result in pain in the neck, the primary symptoms include:

  • numbness in the arms
  • pins and needles in the arms
  • pain or weakness in part of the arms

The two most common causes of cervical radiculopathy are cervical spondylosis, or neck arthritis, and a prolapsed disc.

9. Rare causes of right side neck pain

There are less common causes of neck pain that may be more severe. These may include:

  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • cancer
  • serious injury
  • damage to the nerves, vertebrae, or spinal cord
  • infections
  • bone disorders