The largest genetic study of Alzheimer’s disease to date finds that a “handful of gene variants” increases some people’s risk of both dementia and cardiovascular disease. The findings imply that, in principle, we may be able to repurpose some cardiovascular drugs to prevent or treat Alzheimer’s.
The findings of a new study raise the question: could drugs for cardiovascular problems prevent Alzheimer’s?
Alzheimer’s disease already affects a large number of older adults in the United States and worldwide, but the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) warn that the burden of the condition will double in the U.S. by 2060.
Currently, about 5.7 million Americans are living with the condition, and experts expect this number to reach almost 14 million in the next four decades.
As a result, both tracking down the root cause of Alzheimer’s and moving closer to a cure are of critical importance.
Researchers know that this neurodegenerative condition has a strong genetic component. For instance, a person with one copy of the APOE4 gene variant is twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s as someone without it, while having two copies may increase the risk up to 12-fold.
The APOE gene encodes a protein called apolipoprotein E. In combination with fats, or lipids, this protein forms a type of molecule called a lipoprotein.
Lipoproteins play a role in the transportation of cholesterol and other types of fat through the bloodstream, so there is already an established link between Alzheimer’s disease and cholesterol.
However, new research has now uncovered many other genes that connect the risk of Alzheimer’s with that of cardiovascular disease.
The new study, which appears in the journal Acta Neuropathologica, is the largest genetic study of Alzheimer’s disease to date.
Alzheimer’s and cardiovascular disease
The research team used “large genome-wide association studies and validated tools” to examine the DNA of over 1.5 million people.
Specifically, the team examined the differences in the DNA of people who had risk factors for heart disease, such as a high body mass index (BMI), type 2 diabetes, and high triglyceride and cholesterol levels.
Overall, the analysis found 90 points in the genome, called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), that had an associated risk of both Alzheimer’s and cardiovascular disease.
The scientists identified these 90 SNPs across a total of 19 chromosomes.
Six of these 90 SNPs both strongly influenced Alzheimer’s disease risk and raised the levels of blood lipids — a finding that confirmed the results of previous studies.
Some of the SNPs that the team identified were in genes that scientists had not previously associated with Alzheimer’s risk. These included several SNPs in the CELF1/MTCH2/SPI1 region on chromosome 11, which previous studies had linked to immunity.
The researchers replicated their findings in a large genetic study of healthy individuals. They found that the participants with a family history of Alzheimer’s were more likely to have the newly identified risk genes, even if they themselves had no symptoms.
Can lower cholesterol prevent Alzheimer’s?
Co-senior author reports on the findings, saying, “The genes that influenced lipid metabolism were the ones that also were related to Alzheimer’s disease risk.”
However, the genes that contribute to other cardiovascular risk factors, like body mass index and type 2 diabetes, did not seem to contribute to genetic risk for Alzheimer’s.
These findings represent an opportunity to consider repurposing drugs that target pathways involved in lipid metabolism. Armed with these findings, we can begin to think about whether some of those drugs might be useful in preventing or delaying Alzheimer’s disease.
Researchers note that the findings indicate that keeping cholesterol and triglyceride levels in check could help manage Alzheimer’s risk in some people. However, he stresses that more research is necessary to confirm this.
These results imply that, irrespective of what causes what, cardiovascular and Alzheimer’s pathology co-occur because they are linked genetically. That is, if you carry this handful of gene variants, you may be at risk not only for heart disease but also for Alzheimer’s.”
Researchers summarize the study, saying it “emphasizes that there’s much to learn about how genes driving Alzheimer’s disease risk also increase the risk for other health problems, particularly cardiovascular disease, and vice versa.”
“So, we really need to think about these risks more holistically,” concludes the author.
A mechanism that links the immune system, gut bacteria, and aging has come to light in recent research.
An imbalance in the gut bacteria may be what drives aging.
Immune system dysfunction can disrupt gut bacteria in ways that promote aging-related changes in the body, claim scientists at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland.
A study paper in the journal Immunity details how the scientists used genetically-altered fruit flies to reach their conclusions.
They introduced a dysfunction in the fly’s immune system by switching off a gene. This led to an imbalance in gut bacteria, or microbiota, that produced an excess of lactic acid.
The excess lactic acid generated chemicals called reactive oxygen species that can damage cells and have links to aging-related changes in organs and tissues.
Need to understand commensal dysbiosis
The guts of nearly all animals are home to large colonies of bacteria and other microorganisms that are collectively known as commensal microbes.
There is increasing evidence that commensal microbes influence the immune system and other functions in the body and live in balance with them.
Disruption to this balanced co-existence is known as commensal dysbiosis and can occur for various reasons, such as illness and use of medication.
Studies have also linked commensal dysbiosis to various disease-related changes as well as a shorter life span.
The biological nature of these relationships, however, and the mechanisms that link them, remain somewhat unclear.
The team decided to investigate this further by using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as their model organism. Scientists often use this species to study gut bacteria and genetics.
Commensal dysbiosis shortened life span
In previous work, latsenko had identified a gene that enables the immune system in fruit flies to detect potentially harmful foreign bacteria and attack them. The gene is called peptidoglycan recognition protein SD (PGRP-SD).
For the new investigation, the team bred a mutant strain of immune-impaired fruit flies by switching off their PGRP-SD genes.
The result was that the immune-impaired flies did not live as long as normal flies. They also had much higher numbers of the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum.
L. plantarum is a gut bacterium that produces lactic acid. The scientists found an excess of lactic acid in the immune-impaired flies, together with an associated increase in reactive oxygen species.
Activating PGRP-SD, on the other hand, “prevented commensal dysbiosis” in the flies and caused them to live longer.
“Lactic acid, a metabolite produced by the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum,” Prof. Lemaitre explains, “is incorporated and processed in the fly intestine, with the side-effect of producing reactive oxygen species that promote epithelial damage.”
Igor Iatsenko calls for further studies to find out more about metabolic interactions between commensal bacteria and the body during aging.
People with allergies may find relief by using natural plant extracts and foods that act as antihistamines.
Antihistamines are substances that block histamine activity in the body. Histamine is a protein that triggers allergy symptoms, such as sneezing, itchy eyes, and a scratchy throat.
Over-the-counter and prescription antihistamine medications are effective for symptom relief, but they can cause side effects, such as drowsiness and nausea. As a result, some people wish to try natural alternatives.
In this article, we describe the five best natural antihistamines, and we take a look at the science behind them.
1. Vitamin C
There are a number of natural antihistamines that may help relieve allergy symptoms.
Vitamin C boosts the immune system. It also acts as a natural antihistamine.
According to a 2018 study on vitamin C in the treatment of allergies, oxidative stress plays a key role in allergic diseases. As vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, it may act as a treatment for allergies.
The researchers observed that high doses of intravenous vitamin C reduced allergy symptoms. They also reported that a deficiency in vitamin C might lead to allergy-related diseases.
Another study from 2000 suggests taking 2 grams (g) of vitamin C daily to act as an antihistamine.
The vitamin is present in many fruits and vegetables, including:
- bell peppers
- cantaloupe melon
- citrus fruits
- tomatoes and tomato juice
- winter squash
Butterbur is a plant extract from a shrub that grows in Asia, Europe, and some parts of North America. People often use butterbur to treat migraines and hay fever, also known as allergic rhinitis.
According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), butterbur may have antihistamine effects.
A 2007 review of 16 randomized controlled trials, testing 10 herbal products, suggests that butterbur could be an effective herbal treatment for hay fever.
This review suggested that butterbur was better than a placebo, or as effective as antihistamine medications, for relieving allergy symptoms.
However, the authors of the review point out that some large studies received funding from industry manufacturers, and so further independent research is needed.
Most people tolerate butterbur well, but it may cause side effects such as:
- breathing difficulties
- a headache
- itchy eyes
Raw butterbur extracts contain certain compounds called alkaloids that can cause liver damage and cancer. Extracts of butterbur that do not contain these substances are available. However, no studies have looked into the long-term effects of using these products.
The plant extract can also cause allergic reactions in people with sensitivities to ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, and daisies.
Pineapple juice contains the anti-inflammatory enzyme bromelain.
Bromelain is an enzyme found in the core and juice of pineapples and is also available as a supplement.
Bromelain is a popular natural remedy for swelling or inflammation, especially of the sinuses and following injury or surgery.
Research on mice suggests that bromelain can reduce allergic sensitization and allergic airway disease thanks to its anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties.
In some people, oral supplementation of bromelain may cause adverse reactions such as:
- changes in menstruation
- digestive upset
- an increased heart rate
People who are allergic to pineapple should avoid bromelain.
Probiotics are microorganisms that might offer health benefits by helping the body maintain a healthful balance of gut bacteria.
Probiotics may boost a person’s immune system, which can help the body fight off allergies.
The NCCIH say that the evidence for probiotics is mixed and that some probiotics may help while others may not.
Quercetin is an antioxidant flavonoid found in many plants and foods. Research suggests that adding quercetin to the diet may help to relieve allergy symptoms.
Research reports that quercetin can have anti-allergic and antihistamine properties.
In one animal study, researchers found that quercetin could reduce the respiratory effects of allergies in mice by lowering airway inflammation.
However, the evidence for its effectiveness is mixed, and according to the NCCIH, there is not enough evidence to suggest that quercetin can relieve allergic rhinitis.
Quercetin is naturally present in many foods and herbs, including:
- black tea
- buckwheat tea
- Ginkgo biloba
- green tea
- red onions
- red wine
However, taking supplements of quercetin will work better in the treatment of allergies than eating foods that contain it. This is because foods contain significantly lower levels of the flavonoid.
Quercetin is generally safe for most people. It may cause headaches and tingling in the arms and legs of some people. Very high doses, especially when taken long-term, may cause kidney damage.
Other natural remedies
The NCCIH state that there is not enough evidence to suggest that the following natural products can help with the symptoms of allergic rhinitis:
- grape seed extract
- omega-3 fatty acids
- stinging nettle
Alternative allergy treatments
If natural antihistamines do not reduce a person’s allergy symptoms, they may need to seek alternatives.
Other methods to treat and prevent allergy symptoms include:
Avoiding the allergen
Allergy avoidance is typically the first line of defense against symptoms. Try to identify the allergen, which might be pollen, pet dander, or mold spores, and reduce exposure to it as much as possible.
Allergy shots may be helpful for people with severe allergies.
Allergy medicines can cause the immune system’s reaction to the allergen to calm down. Antihistamines work by breaking down histamine in the body.
Antihistamine medications can reduce symptoms such as sneezing, itchy eyes, and sinus pressure.
Medications for allergies are available OTC or by prescription and include:
- oral medications
- nasal sprays
- eye drops
People with severe allergies may benefit from immunotherapy. This treatment is also suitable if allergy medications do not relieve symptoms.
During immunotherapy, a healthcare professional will give a person a series of injections that contain tiny amounts of the allergen. This treatment may take place over several years and aims to desensitize the body to the allergen.
For people with pollen allergies, doctors may recommend sublingual immunotherapy. This involves placing a tablet under the tongue until it dissolves.
Those with severe allergies may need to carry an emergency epinephrine shot (Auvi-Q, EpiPen) with them at all times. Giving this treatment at the onset of an allergic reaction can reduce symptoms and may save a person’s life.
Living with allergies can be challenging, especially when symptoms are at their worst. Seek help and advice from a doctor when dealing with allergy symptoms.
Some natural substances can have antihistamine properties, meaning they can break down the chemicals that cause allergy symptoms. More evidence is needed to find out how effective these natural remedies are.
For the best chance of relief, try to limit or avoid exposure to the allergen. Practice good self-care techniques and consider using natural antihistamines.
As the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not regulate supplements, and natural remedies can interfere with certain medications, it is essential to speak to a doctor before beginning any new supplement or herbal remedy.
People with a chicken allergy may have an allergic reaction after eating chicken meat, or, sometimes, after their skin comes into contact with chicken feathers.
While fish and seafood are often the primary sources of food allergies, allergies to other types of meat are less common.
Most people with an allergy to chicken will notice mild symptoms and discomfort after eating or touching it. However, some people may develop severe reactions that require medical attention.
Chicken allergies and intolerances
People can have an allergy or intolerance to chicken meat or other chicken products, including feathers or eggs.
An allergy usually involves more generalized symptoms, such as swelling and rashes, while an intolerance involves digestive issues, such as diarrhea.
Another uncommon condition, known as bird-egg syndrome, occurs when a person eats undercooked or raw egg yolks or inhales feathers or particles from a chicken.
Are chicken allergies common?
Allergic reactions to chicken meat are rare. They can affect both adults and children. They are most often seen in adolescents, though may begin around preschool age.An allergy to chicken meat may occur as a primary allergy (a true allergy), or as a secondary allergy caused by cross-reactivity with another allergy, such as an allergy to eggs, though this is rare.
Symptoms of a chicken allergy
A chicken allergy can cause symptoms that range in severity. Since it is a rare condition, it is difficult to say what the most common reactions are.
However, people with chicken meat allergies or intolerance may experience the following symptoms after eating or coming into contact with chicken meat:
- coughing or wheezing
- red, irritated skin
- an inflamed or swollen throat
- swollen tongue or lips
- nausea or vomiting
- stomach cramps
- a sore throat
- swollen, watery eyes
In more severe cases, people may experience a dangerous allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis. Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:
- trouble breathing
- heart palpitations
- a racing heart
- drop in blood pressure
- loss of consciousness
If a person experiences any of the above symptoms after eating cooked chicken or handling raw chicken, they should get medical attention immediately as anaphylaxis is a life-threatening condition.
Can you be allergic to chicken but not eggs?
If a person has a primary allergy to chicken meat, it does not mean they will have an allergy to chicken eggs. In other cases, people may develop a secondary sensitivity to chicken meat as a result of other allergies, such as in bird-egg syndrome.
There are only a few reports of people with a chicken egg allergy and also a chicken meat allergy.
Doctors do not consider people with bird-egg syndrome to have a primary or true chicken meat allergy. These people experience an allergic reaction to a specific protein found in both egg yolks and chickens.
Managing chicken allergies
People with a chicken meat allergy should avoid any contact with raw or cooked chicken meat and unless told otherwise by their doctor, chicken products.
Although not always the case, some people may also need to avoid chicken eggs, especially raw or undercooked eggs. These are present in many products, such as raw cookie dough or batter. Always check the label.
In cases of accidental exposure, people can try over-the-counter antihistamines. Antihistamines can help stop the immune system from overreacting to the chicken.
Anyone experiencing a severe reaction should get medical attention immediately, and use an injectable epinephrine shot, often known by the brand name EpiPen.
A person with a chicken meat allergy may be allergic to other related substances.
People with chicken meat allergies may need to avoid eating some or all of the following:
- chicken broth
- other chicken products
- fish and shrimp
They may also need to avoid exposure to chicken feathers and other poultry, including domestic birds.
Some people may choose to avoid certain domestic products, such as feathered-filled pillows.
Some vaccinations, such as yellow fever, contain chicken protein. This can cause an allergic reaction if injected.
People with any food allergy should talk with their doctor about which specific things they need to avoid.
When to see a doctor
People should see their doctor if they experience any symptoms of an allergic reaction up to a couple of hours after eating chicken meat.
Even if the reaction is mild, a doctor can help a person figure out the cause of their symptoms, treat reactions, and plan ways to avoid future contact with allergens.
If a person experiences any of the signs of anaphylaxis, they will require immediate medical attention. After recovering, the person should make a follow-up appointment with their doctor. When a person experiences a severe reaction for the first time, a doctor will prescribe an EpiPen or similar injector.
How to clean your ears Methods to avoid Symptoms of earwax blockage? When to See a doctor? Takeaway tips
Earwax is how the body lubricates and protects the ear. People do not usually need to clean out their ears, but sometimes earwax and other debris can build up.
Earwax, or cerumen, leaves the body slowly. Chewing and moving the jaw pushes the earwax from the canal to the outer ear. When the earwax and dead skin it collects reaches the outer ear, it dries up and flakes off.
According to the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery (AAO–HNS), earwax has natural antibacterial properties that may help protect the ear from infections.
Cleaning the ear too often can lead to dry, itchy ears. Using an object, such as a cotton swab, for cleaning the earwax may actually push it back into the ear. Cleaning out earwax that is not causing any symptoms is not usually needed or recommended.
Still, there are times when a person may need to clean their ears if wax or debris has built up to the point that it causes symptoms, such as muffled hearing. In this article, learn how to clean your ears at home.
How to clean your ears
A person can use an irrigation kit to safely clean the ears.
The safest approach to cleaning ears is to visit a doctor or other healthcare professional, as they can use specialized instruments to remove any excessive earwax or debris safely.
These instruments may include:
- a suction device
- a spoon-like tool
A doctor can also help determine if other underlying health conditions may require attention.
If a person still wishes to clean their ears at home, they can try one of the following methods:
Using a damp cloth
A person can wet a cloth or paper towel with lukewarm water. After wringing out the excess, they can use the cloth to clean the outer areas of the ear.
It is never a good idea to insert an object into the ear.
Mineral oil or traditional ear drops
People can buy ear drops to use at home over the counter or online.
Alternatively, there are several solutions people can use as ear drops to loosen an earwax buildup and make it easier to remove.
- baby oil
- mineral oil
- hydrogen peroxide
- carbamide peroxide
A person can buy an irrigation kit that uses plain water or a combination of water and saline solution, or they can visit a doctor for professional irrigation. They may want to use ear drops before irrigation. A variety of irrigation kits are available for purchase online.
To start the procedure, a person should warm up the water and ear drops to about body temperature before they apply them to avoid side effects, such as dizziness. However, people should take care not to make the solution too hot, as it may lead to a burn.
To irrigate the ear, a person uses a syringe and squirts the water or saline solution into the ear canal. They should let any ear drops applied before irrigation sit in the ear for about 15 to 30 minutes by keeping their head tilted to one side.
The AAO–HNS warn against certain individuals using irrigation. People should not use irrigation to clean their ears if they have:
- holes in their eardrum
- eczema or other skin conditions in or near the ear
- a weakened immune system
- a tube in their eardrum
Methods to avoid
Avoid using cotton swabs to remove earwax.
One of the most common methods people use at home to clean their ears is cotton swabs. The risks of using cotton swabs include:
- pushing earwax deeper into the ear
- slowing down the natural process of earwax removal
- injuring the eardrum
- getting the swab stuck in the ear
Doctors and the United States Food and Drug Association (FDA) also warn against using earwax candles.
Cleaning the ear with earwax candles involves inserting a conical wax-coated cloth into the ear canal. The individual then lights the exposed end of the fabric so that it burns. This method can result in:
- burns to the skin
- a blockage of candle wax in the ear
- fires in the home
- holes in the membrane between the ear canal and middle ear
- a punctured eardrum
It is never a good idea to insert any object directly into the ear, as doing this can cause injuries and push earwax further down.
Cleaning the ears too often can remove wax that serves to protect them from bacteria and other debris.
Symptoms of earwax blockage
When earwax builds up in the ear, a person may experience some minor hearing loss and irritation in the ear.
People can also experience a sensation of fullness in the ear. In some cases, this may occur alongside an earache.
When to see a doctor
A doctor can diagnose ear infections and remove earwax blockages.
A person should see their doctor if they are experiencing an earwax blockage and do not feel comfortable using an at-home cleaning solution.
A person should also see their doctor if they have signs of an ear infection, such as:
- pain in or around the ear
- fluid draining from the ear
- difficulty hearing
In addition to acute infections, a person should consult their doctor if they experience repeated blockages. The doctor can discuss ways to try to prevent this from happening. A person can schedule regular cleanings with their doctor to help keep their ears clean and free of any blockages.
Earwax serves an essential function by keeping the ears clean of debris and bacteria. In most cases, earwax will naturally leave the body without interference.
Having a doctor or another medical professional remove the excess wax is the safest and best way to clear a blockage.
For those interested in at-home solutions, there are several safe methods that do not involve the risk of inserting objects into the ears.
Most women can continue with their everyday activities during pregnancy and only need to make some minor lifestyle changes. The health and well-being of both the woman and the developing fetus are of primary concern during pregnancy, so it is best to avoid consuming certain foods and doing potentially risky activities.
When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol crosses the placenta and can affect the fetus. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome.
A fetus that gets exposure to alcohol in the womb may develop a wide range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. These disorders can cause the following health issues:
- physical abnormalities
- intellectual disabilities
- behavioral problems
- poor growth
- developmental delays
- reduced coordination and fine motor skills
2)Eating certain foods
It is common for pregnant women to avoid certain foods during pregnancy, either due to a change in their sense of smell or because the food makes them feel ill. However, there are some foods that all pregnant women should avoid eating. These include:
- Lunch meat and deli salads: Deli meats and foods, such as premade chicken salad, may contain listeria. Listeria is a bacteria that can cross the placenta and may be deadly for the fetus.
- Unpasteurized juice and dairy: As with deli meats, unpasteurized dairy products and juices can contain listeria and other bacteria that may cause food poisoning.
- Some soft cheeses: Certain soft cheese may contain unpasteurized dairy, particularly imported soft cheeses, such as brie, feta, and queso blanco.
- Fish high in mercury: Swordfish, shark, and mackerel are among the fish that contain high levels of mercury. According to March of Dimes, exposing the fetus to mercury may cause brain damage or hearing and vision problems.
- Raw meat and fish: Raw meat and fish, including sushi and raw oysters, can contain both salmonella and toxoplasmosis. Pregnant women have an increased risk of getting foodborne illness from these pathogens. Foodborne illness may cause dehydration, fever, and intrauterine sepsis, a blood infection that can be deadly to the fetus.
- Raw eggs: Raw eggs can also contain salmonella. Pregnant women should avoid any foods that may contain raw eggs, such as unbaked cookie dough or homemade Caesar salad dressing.
3)Too much caffeine
In the same way as alcohol, caffeine can cross the placenta and affect the fetus.
While much of the data regarding pregnancy and caffeine consumption is inconclusive, research suggests that it is best to limit the intake of caffeine to 300 milligrams (mg) per day. Some experts believe that quantities greater than this can be harmful to the fetus and may increase the risk of pregnancy loss and low birth weight.
March of Dimes recommend that pregnant women consume no more than 200 mg of caffeine per day. This amounts to about 1.5 cups of coffee per day.
4)Hot tubs, saunas, and overheating
While relaxing in hot water may sound like an effective way to ease pregnancy discomfort, experts recommend avoiding hot tubs and saunas.
According to the American Pregnancy Association, hot tubs can cause hyperthermia, or abnormally high body temperature, which may lead to congenital abnormalities.
Additional activities that may cause the body temperature to rise too high include:
- hot yoga or Pilates
- sunbathing for too long
- exposure to extreme heat
- strenuous exercise
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend that pregnant women avoid contact sports, such as football or boxing.
Contact sports increase the risk of placental abruption, which is the premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall. Placental abruption is a severe condition that can cause preterm birth, pregnancy loss, or stillbirth.
Pregnant women are also more prone to injury as hormonal changes in the body cause the ligaments to become looser.
6)Activities with a fall risk
After the first trimester, pregnant women should avoid any activity which carries the risk of falling, including skiing, ice-skating, and rock climbing.
During pregnancy, the center of gravity shifts as the belly expands, so even a minor fall may result in injuries.
7)Amusement park rides
Many amusement parks do not allow pregnant women on some rides, including roller coasters or any rides that may start or stop suddenly.
The jarring motion of these rides can cause placental abruption.
8)Changing a litter box
Pregnant women should avoid changing a litter box. Cleaning dirty litter boxes can put a person at risk of toxoplasmosis.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), if a pregnant woman passes toxoplasmosis to the fetus, the baby may develop severe symptoms, including:
- intellectual disabilities
- brain damage
- eye damage
According to the American Pregnancy Association, pregnant women should avoid heavy lifting. For some women, lifting heavy objects can increase the risk of:
- pulled muscles
- low birth weight
- preterm labor
Smoking cigarettes during pregnancy can cause harm to both the woman and the baby. Aside from an increased risk of heart disease and lung cancer, smoking when pregnant can also cause the following problems during and after pregnancy:
- premature birth
- congenital abnormalities, such as cleft lip or cleft palate
- sudden infant death syndrome
- issues with the placenta
Women should stop smoking as soon as they know that they are pregnant and avoid exposure to secondhand smoke. Women who are struggling to quit smoking can talk to a doctor about the help and additional resources that are available.
While illegal drug use is always dangerous, it can be even more harmful during pregnancy.
Using illegal drugs or misusing certain prescription drugs can cause a newborn to go through neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). A baby with NAS will go through substance withdrawal at birth.
Additionally, drug use can increase the risk of stillbirth, pregnancy loss, and congenital abnormalities.
12)Taking certain medications
Pregnant women should avoid some over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications while pregnant, as these can harm the fetus.
Doctors recommend avoiding the following medications while pregnant:
- ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
- most herbal remedies
- ACE inhibitors
- some cold medications during the first trimester
- cold and flu medications that contain specific ingredients
- some acne medications
A doctor or pharmacist can provide advice on which medications are safe to use and can often recommend alternatives if women can no longer take their regular medicines.
13)Some types of exercise
Although doctors recommend that most pregnant women exercise, certain types of exercise are not suitable during pregnancy.
Pregnant women should try to avoid exercise that involves:
- bouncing, leaping, and jumping
- sudden changes in direction
- jarring or jerky movements
- abdominal exercises on the back, such as situps, after the first trimester
Many exercises, such as walking, swimming, and squats, can be beneficial during pregnancy. It is best to speak to a doctor about any existing or new exercise routines.